The incidents characteristic of the story of "Cinderella" are interchangeable with a large proportion of the incidents of the "Catskin" and "Cap o' Rushes" stories. In arranging the variants belonging to the Cinderella type, I have, after conferring with the Council of the Folk-Lore Society, grouped them, as far as possible, under the three heads: A.--CINDERELLA, B.--CATSKIN, C.--CAP O' RUSHES, according to the characterising features of each. The essential incidents of each group may be seen as follows:
Those given under B. and C. may be regarded as the only differentiating incidents the rest being common to all the stories. A large number of variants, while lacking the incidents which would determine their place under one of the above heads, contain such as are common to all three groups. These stories constitute group D.--INDETERMINATE, which is subdivided to show which stories approximate most to the Cinderella type (Da.), and which to the Catskin type (Db.), the remainder not being referable to any distinct type.
The following is a list of the common incidents, showing in which group each recurs:
Aid (various). A. B. C. D. E.
The elaborate story of "The Nymph of the Well" (Volksmärchen der Deutschen, Gotha, 1782) into which Musäus has worked some of the incidents of the popular tales of Cinderella, Dame Holle, and Allerleirauh, is of too literary a character to be included in the present collection. Arndt's very ornate rendering of "Aschenbrödel" (Märchen und Jugenderinnerungen, Berlin, 1818) is omitted for the same reason.
I have presented each story in simplest outline in order to facilitate a general survey. These ABSTRACTS are arranged bibliographically under the several groups, and are numbered consecutively. The TABULATIONS which fill in the details are correspondingly numbered, but are arranged bibliographically irrespective of the grouping.
In transliterating Russian, Slavonic, and other proper names, titles of works, and story-titles, I have followed, under Mr. Naake's advice, the system adopted in the Catalogue of the British Museum Library. For example, the author variously referred to in folk-lore studies, as Vuk, Wuk, or Wouk, will be found under the surname Karajich. Consistently with this plan I have also substituted Athanas'ev for the more usual rendering, Afanasief.
The following scheme exhibits the diffusion of the Cinderella story according to the data afforded by the present collection of variants. Each variant is referred to by number, the group to which it belongs and the collection from which it is taken being also indicated. Certain contiguous countries are here grouped together to avoid their wide severance by a purely alphabetical arrangement.
A: Mr. McLeod forgets time. A year and a day?
Return to place in chart.
It has been suggested that Perrault probably borrowed his Peau d'Ane from Straparola Perrault's stories appeared 1694-7, and twelve editions of the French translation of Straparola had been issued before that date. I have included a still earlier French version (No. 234, p. 206) from the Nouvelles Recreations et Joyeux Devis of Jean Bonaventure Des Periers, first published in 1544. In this the folk-tale has assumed the guise of a romance to suit the taste of the Court ladies. Jean Bonaventure Des Periers was born in Bourgogne, in the little town of Arnay-le-Duc, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, and was valet de chambre at the Court of Navarre, under François 1er. There is also early mention of a hero-tale of the Cinderella type in the Preface to Rollenhagen's Froschmeuseler, where he refers to the wonderful household story "of the despised and pious Aschenpössel, and his proud and scornful brethren". Georg Rollenhagen was born in 1542, and died in 1609. M. Loys Brueyre, in his Contes populaires de la Grande Bretagne (p. 44), refers--but erroneously, as far as I can find--to a Rashin Coatie story in the Complaynt of Scotland (1548).
In compiling this collection of variants the difficulty has not been in tracing resemblances, but rather in determining what degree of family likeness or relationship shall constitute eligibility. Numerous "as the sand and dust" are the stories which have received their share of a family heritage. A particular folk-tale incident may recur in an endless number of permutations and combinations with other sets of incidents, and hopeless is the task of comprehending a series whose term is infinity. Thus some authorities have noted, as belonging to the Cinderella type, certain stories which I have not included, though I have endeavoured to refer to them all in the Notes. The collection by no means aims at being exhaustive; nevertheless, I fear I may be guilty of important omissions. I have searched a number of published collections of folk-tales with negative result,2 and there are several works, to which, as they are not to be had in the British Museum Library, I have been unable to gain access.3 So considerable is the amount of material selected for me by those kind contributors from distant parts, who have interested themselves in the subject, that I do not doubt that tile number of variants would be rapidly multi plied if further help of this sort were solicited. However, the Council of the Folk-lore Society, at whose invitation I undertook this volume, deemed it advisable to make an arbitrary end of the labour of collecting, which otherwise might be carried on indefinitely.
The fact that isolated incidents in folk-tales may recur in infinitely varied combinations is amply illustrated in several of the Cinderella variants. One type of story may thus be conjoined with another. For example, we are reminded of "Hop o' my Thumb" in the opening of Nos. 8, 32, 56, 111, and 130; of "Toads and Diamonds" in Nos. 5, 8, 21, 89, 118, 229, 237, 239, 240, 241, 245, 247; of "Beauty and the Beast" in Nos. 191, 297; of ''Puss in Boots" in Nos. 11, 39, 71, 121; of ''The Three Spinners" in No. 196; and of "Rumpelstiltskin" in Nos. 40 and 63.
The common incidents are very variously coloured. For instance, in the Moravian story (No. 70), when the prince has started to church with the false bride, the heroine transforms herself into the bird, whose usual part it is to direct attention to the mutilated foot. In the Danish story (No. 60) the bird itself suggests the surgical adaptation of the false foot to the slipper, and not the mother, who, however, urges her daughter to submit to the treatment, with the familiar reminder, "il faut souffrir pour être belle." The shoe in this story has never belonged to the heroine. It is kept in the royal family, and must be worn by anyone aspiring to be queen. In other stories also the prince provides the wedding shoes, not necessarily because the bride is of humble origin.4 In the Basque story (No. 256) the step mother befriends the heroine, and contrives her marriage with a king. In the Ligurian story (No. 3) the fairy-godmother doubles tile part with that of the stepmother--an exceptional instance, as far as I know. The fairy-godmother herself figures but rarely;5 the stories in which she replaces the helpful animal, like those in which the glass shoe is met with,6 are probably imitations of Perrault's version. In the variant from Ostrobothnia (No. 197), in place of the "counter-tasks" usually demanded from the unnatural father, the heroine must provide the gold and silver dresses and the crow's-beak gown, and then her father will release her. Sir Walter Scott said of himself that he "could never repeat a story without giving it a new hat and stick". Similar liberality on the part of the narrator bestows galoshes on the heroine in the Danish story (No. 62), and provides a tobacco-leaf for the wounded feet of the elder sisters in the story from Jutland (No. 61), and is accountable for the German soap and the Indian dress in the Finnish stories (Nos. 106, 109), the Spanish staff which kills the serpent in the South-German story (No. 341), for the "announcement in the newspapers" in the story from Jutland (No. 65), for the merciful saving of the foot at the expense of the toe and heel of the stocking in another story from Jutland (No. 63), for the wax-trap in the Polish story (No. 130), and the honey-trap in the Greek story (No. 17), and for all such embellishments and emendations.
Mr. Lang has said,7 "We may conjecture that the ass-skin worn by Peau d'Ane was originally the hide of the beast helpful to her." Such is actually stated to be the case in three only of the variants which I have examined, namely, in two Swedish stories (Nos. 98, 117), and in one Finnish story (No. 109). In almost every version the helpful beast is a domesticated animal,8 the most notable exception being in the case of the white bear in the Swedish story (No. 117), who gallantly sacrifices himself that the heroine may don his skin. A white ermine performs the task in another Swedish variant (No. 113), and a wolf is decidedly helpful in a Danish story (No. 290). Fish befriend the heroine in an Annamite (No. 69), a Swedish (No. 112), and in two Italian versions (Nos. 122, 239), and an eel minds the house for her and gives her splendid dresses in the story from Jutland (No. 100), though not, as it afterwards appears, from a purely disinterested motive. The quick-witted mouse in the Slavonic (No. 301), and the toad in the Hungarian story (No. 338), must rather be numbered amongst "grateful beasts".
That Cinderella is the guardian of the hearth is well proven. But she is not invariably the youngest child, especially when she is a stepchild. Mr. Gomme has pointed out9 that the Greek Hestia was the eldest child of Kronos and Rhea, and the goddess of the household sanctuary, or rather of the fire burning on the hearth. Among the Ovahereró tribe of South Africa "the eldest unmarried daughter of the chief has charge of the sacred fire, since this must never be allowed to go out". (S. Af. Folk-lore Journal, ii, 66.)
Whether, as in the Catskin stories--which, according to some authorities, are based upon nature-myths connected with the phenomena of day and night, or of the seasons of the year--our heroine be an originally brilliant being reduced to a state of temporary obscurity or eclipse, but eventually restored to her pristine splendour; or whether she be merely the "Cinderella", the lovely-natured, ill-treated member of the family whose loveliness cannot for ever be hidden, or whose worth go unrewarded; in every case
And thus it is that in works of the most diverse character upon legendary subjects, one may for ever be detecting, with dangerous facility, some element of the Cinderella story. For instance, we recognise our heroine under one of her many disguises in the story of Crow, the maiden of mean attire and low estate, who in the end turns out to be Aslaug, a princess, daughter of Sigfred and Brunhild. The first part of her pretty story is given in the Volsunga Saga (c. 43), and, with some abridgment, runs as follows10:--
When Heimir heard of the death of Sigurd and Brynhild, Aslaug their daughter and Heimir's foster-child was three winters old. Knowing that men would seek to destroy the child and all her race, and that he could not hide her in Hlyndalir, Heimir caused a harp to be made, large enough to enclose her; and, for baking his kingdom and his goods, he journeyed far till he reached Norway. And he put many costly dresses and much gold and precious jewels in the harp, which was so cunningly contrived that it could be taken asunder at pleasure. He gave the child a narcotic leek (vimlaukr) to eat, whose property was such that any one partaking of it could long subsist without other food. And o he journeyed till he reached a little farm called Spangarheide. Here the peasant Aki dwelt with his wife Grima; but there were no other dwellers there. The man was away in the forest in the daytime, but the old woman received Heimir, and kindled a fire for him, and was mighty talkative as he sat and warmed himself, with his harp on the seat beside him. Full many a look she gave at the harp, for a corner of some costly garment was sticking out of it; moreover, she spied a rich gold ring under the rags that the stranger wore. And after he had warmed himself and supped he bade the old woman lead him to where he could sleep through the night. Better would he fare outside than in, she said, because she and her old man are wont to talk a good deal when he comes home. So he took his harp and followed her out to the barn, where he might sleep undisturbed. When the old man returned he scolded his wife for having neglected her duties; and she explained that a man had come, asking for a night's lodging, and she deemed that he carried great riches with him; in truth, she had never seen his like before, so mighty he seemed, though weary. Then she tried to arouse the old man's jealousy, and thus egged him on to slay the stranger. He sharpened his axe, and she led him to where Heimir slept, and loudly snored. She took the harp and ran away, and the peasant dealt him a deadly blow with the axe and rushed forth with the utmost speed. And, at the great cry which Heimir raised, the posts of the barn gave way, and the whole building fell in, for there was a mighty earthquake.
Anon, when the old woman broke open the harp she found the maid and the great riches inside. They questioned the child about her race, but she answered never a word. Then Grima said she should be called Kraka (Crow) after her mother, and, because of the child's great beauty, she shaved off her hair and smeared her head with tar, that it should not grow again. And she put a large hat on her, and clothed her meanly. Thus they thought to make her pass for their own child. They gave her all the roughest work to do; and so Aslaug grew up in utter wretchedness. But the old man and his wife thought her dumb, because she never answered them.
What further befell Aslaug is related in the Saga of Ragnar Lodbrok (c. 4-8), from which the following abstract is made Ragnar Lodbrok, son of King Sigurd Ring, sails to Norway and lands not far from Spangarheide. He sends his scullions on land to bake some bread, and they come to the farm of Aki and Grima. They ask the old woman to help them, but she says that her hands are too stiff; but her daughter Kraka will soon be in, and will be at their service. Kraka had gone out early to drive the cattle to pasture. But, on seeing the ship coming to land, she had washed herself in spite of the old woman's injunction. (The old woman did not wish her great beauty to be seen, for she was the fairest of maids, and her hair, which reached even to the ground, was like silk.) So, when she returns, Ragnar's men marvel at her beauty, and ask the old woman if she is her daughter. Grima assents to their question. Kraka kneads the bread for them; but during the baking they can only watch the maiden, and so the bread gets burned. Ragnar inquires where they baked the bread, and they tell him, and also confess that they could not attend to their business because of a very lovely girl, of beauty no less rare than that of Thora, his first wife. Ragnar will forgive them if this be true, and he sends messengers to fetch her, if she be indeed so fair, to be his wife. But she must come neither clad nor unclad, neither fed nor unfed, she must not come alone, and yet no one must accompany her.11 The message is delivered to Kraka, and she promises to come on the morrow. So she wraps herself in a fishing-net, letting her long hair fall over it, eats a morsel of leek, takes a dog with her, and sets out to the ship.12 Ragnar invites her to come aboard; he leads her to his cabin. She will not consent to accompany him on his voyage; but if, on his return, he is of the same mind, then she will fare with him. He offers her Thora's gold embroidered dress, which she declines.13 Then she goes home, and Ragnar continues his voyage. On his return the king puts in at the same port, and sends his men for Kraka. She tells the old people that she is going thence, and that she knows that they have slain her foster-father Heimir, wherefore she leaves a curse behind her. Ragnar takes her to his home, and then marries her. After she has borne him many children, Ragnar, journeying to Sweden, becomes acquainted with Ingebiorg, the daughter of King Eystein. His followers urge him to woo her, and to put the peasant's daughter away. Ingebiörg is betrothed to him, and he strictly enjoins his people to say no word about it when they get back. But Kraka hears of it, and speaks thereof to her husband, making believe that three birds have told her; and she now makes known that she is the daughter of Sigurd Fafnirsbane and of Brunhild, and relates how she came to the peasants' homestead.
It is unnecessary to point out the striking parallels which the above narrative presents to the common incidents of the folk- tale. Again, we get the obscure and servile condition of the heroine, a salient element in the Cinderella story, in the Epic Gudrun. Here it is due to the anger of a would-be mother-in- law. The same element occurs in the story of Cupid and Psyche in a form still more closely akin to Cinderella.
Numberless instances might be adduced in which a hero or heroine must undergo a term of servitude before fulfilling an exalted destiny. Apollo tended the flocks of Admetus, and was doomed to serve Laomedon for a wage. Hercules was for twelve years in the service of Eurystheus, after which he became immortal. M. Loys Brueyre1 refers to Pérouik l'Idiot (Em. Souvestre), a popular version of the old romance of Perceval, as furnishing the Celtic type of Cendrillon. The hero begins by being stupid to the length of mistaking deer for goats, and finishes by achieving great things. In short, the detached elements of the Cinderella story, as well as of the nearly allied Catskin story, are folk-tale commonplaces, though they are nowhere united into a whole that could account, by literary filiation, for the story as we find it in Italy in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
The shoe incident, perhaps the most salient feature of Cinderella proper, was probably a story-telling commonplace before it was introduced into the German poem of King Rother, which was written in the early part of the twelfth century. It may be serviceable briefly to summarise the earlier contents of this poem, in order to show in what connection the shoe incident occurs. Rother, King of Rome, is urged to marry. His kinsman, the good hero Lupolt, knows of a rich king's daughter over the Eastern Sea at Constantinople; her father is called Constantine. Surpassing fair is she, but hitherto no man has ever sought her but has lost his life. The king sends Lupolt with a large following to woo the princess for him. They are at first well received by King Constantine; but, when Lupolt makes known his errand, they are all thrown into prison. Presently, King Rother is counselled himself to journey to Constantinople. He sets out, accompanied by the giant Asprian and others from giant-land, Rother assuming the name of Thiderich throughout the expedition. Constantine and his lords are much alarmed to see them arrive; but Thiderich makes believe that he is seeking protection from the powerful King Rother. During their stay at the court, Constantine's daughter, having seen Thiderich and fallen in love with him, sends her attendant, Herlint, to bid him to her apartment. Fearing treachery, he will not go; but he forthwith sets his goldsmith to cast two silver and two gold shoes, and gives two of them to Herlint. Under Asprian's advice, he gives, however, both the shoes for the same foot. The princess obtains possession of the shoes and puts on the gold one; but as the silver shoe will not fit, she again sends Herlint to Thiderich to ask him to give her the fellow-shoe, and to come and see her. He sends the shoe, and, when he presently visits the princess, she welcomes him, and bids him put it on her foot. He sits at her feet, and she places her foot on his knee. Then he bids her confess, as she is a Christian, which of all her wooers has pleased her best. She vows that amongst all the heroes whom she has seen not one is his peer. But, could she have her choice, she would take the brave hero whose messengers are even now in her father's dungeons; otherwise she must ever go unwed. His name is Rother, and he dwells westwards over the sea. Then he makes known to her that her feet are in King Rother's lap.
More simple use is made of the same incident in the middle thirteenth century Thidrekssaga:--
The Wilcini take Oda, the daughter of King Melias, and all her portable property, from the castle, and bring her to their leader, who says to her that, since her father would not give her to King Osangtrix, he will carry her to his master, and so win his goodwill. And he takes a silver shoe, and, placing the king's daughter on his knee, he draws it on her foot. It is neither too large nor too small, but fits as though it were made for her. Removing the silver shoe, he tries one of red gold, which fits even better. Then he makes known that he himself is King Osangtrix.15
The German custom lays stress on the shoeing of the bride; the Russian saga, on the other hand, points to the customary shoeing of the bridegroom.16 In 980, Vladimir wooed the daughter of Ragvald, who disdainfully rejected him, saying, "I will not shoe the son of a servant-girl." (Nestor, Schlöz., 5, 198; Mull., 150; Ewers, p. 116.)
According to Prof. de Gubernatis (Zoological Mythology, ii, 281 17). "Ahalyâ (the evening Aurora) in the ashes is the germ of the story of Cinderella, and of the daughter of the King of Dacia, persecuted by her lover, her father himself." He even considers that the legend of the lost slipper reposes "entirely upon the double meaning of the word apad, i.e., who has no foot, or what is the measure of the foot, which may be either the footstep or the slipper" (op. cit., i, 31). This stretch of the "solar theory" would indeed make of the beautiful story of Cinderella
But as a system of explanation in the present case this theory has been conclusively handled by Mr. Lang in his Introduction to Perrault (p. c). As Mr. Ralston has said, in his interesting study of the story of Cinderella:18 "There is a vast difference between regarding as a nature-myth in general the germ of the legends from which have sprung the stories of the Cinderella cycle, and identifying with precision the particular atmospheric phenomenon which all its heroes and heroines are supposed to symbolise. And there is an equally wide difference between the reasonableness of seeking for a mythological explanation of a legend when traced back to its oldest known form, and the utter absurdity of attempting to squeeze a mythical meaning out of every incident in a modern nursery tale, which has, perhaps, been either considerably enlarged, or cruelly 'clippit and nippit' by successive generations of rustic repeaters, and has most certainly been greatly modified and dressed by its literary introducers into polite society."
In dealing with the "unlawful marriage" opening of the Rashie-Coat story, Mr. Ralston writes: "Mythologists say that all stories about such marriages mean nothing more than does the dialogue in the Veda between Yama and his twin-sister Yami, in which 'she (the night) implores her brother (the day) to make her his wife, and he declines her offer, because, as he says, "They have thought it sin that a brother should marry his sister."'19 But by many eyes these narratives are regarded as ancient traditions which preserve the memory of customs long obsolete and all but forgotten." The Russian story from Athanas'ev (to which I refer on p. 150) of the girl who, pursued by her brother, sinks into the earth, and so escapes, and the similar Polish story from Wojcicki (No. 205, p. 428), find their parallel in genuine savage folk-lore. In a Zulu tale,20 a girl, whose brother is pursuing her with murderous intent, exclaims, "Open, earth I that I may enter, for I am about to die this day"; whereupon "the earth opened, and Untombi-yapansi entered". Her subsequent adventures, also, are akin to those of Cinderella. Originally "her body glistened, for she was like brass", but "she took some black earth and smeared her body with it", and so eclipsed her natural radiance. Eventually, however, she was watched by the chief, who saw her, "dirty, and very black", enter a pool, and emerge from it "with her body glistening like brass", put on garments and ornaments which arose out of the ground, and behave altogether like the brilliant heroine she really was. "There seems to be good reason", says Mr. Ralston, "for looking upon Untombi-yapansi as a Zulu Cinderella. But how far a foreign influence has been exercised upon the Zulu tale it would be difficult to decide."
The "unlawful marriage" opening which characterises the second group of the Cinderella variants has been utilised in the legendary histories of Christian saints, in a number of mediaeval romances, and in the Mysteries based on the same. In the sequence of events to which it leads in romantic and legendary literature, many incidents of the folk-tale are reproduced; but these belong more especially to another class of story, of which, therefore, before examining the legends themselves, I may here give a few examples. The episodes most frequently met with in the romances may be thus briefly enumerated:
In the Lithuanian story of the holy Margarita (Leskien und Brugman, Litauische Volkslieder und Märchen, pp. 505-508, No. 46), the stepmother calumniates the heroine to her absent brother, the duke, who at length sends orders for Margarita's arms to be cut off to the elbow, and for her to be turned out into the wilderness. She strays into the garden of a foreign king, whose son marries her. During his absence, she bears a son with a star to the right and left, and moonlight on the back of his head. The wicked stepmother writes to inform the prince that his wife has borne a monster. After receiving a third letter to this effect, he writes word that the child is to be bound to the mother's breast, and that she is to be turned out. Whilst Margarita is stooping to drink at a well, the bandage tears and the child falls into the water. She plunges her stumps in to recover it, and her arms are restored; but she cannot save the child. Presently she returns to the well, and finds the Mother of God holding the child, who is able to talk, and proposes to its mother that they should set out together in search of food. After a time they come to the palace where her brother is. A great feast is being held, and the heroine relates to the duke, the king, her stepmother, and many others assembled on the balcony, the story of the life of Saint Margarita. The duke recognises his lost sister, and the wicked stepmother is burnt to death.
In Gonzenbach's twenty-fourth story, "Von der schönen Wirthstochter" (Sicilianische Märchen, i, 148), the heroine's mother, who keeps an inn, is jealous of her daughter's beauty, and shuts her up. A king, however, catches sight of her, and marries her. During his absence at the war the heroine bears a child, and her mother in-law writes to tell the king. The messenger stops at the mother's inn, and the mother takes the opportunity of ex changing the letter for another, announcing that the queen has borne a monster. The king writes word that his wife and child are to be taken every care of; but again the heroine's mother intercepts the messenger and substitutes a letter containing the order that the queen's hands be cut off, her child bound to her arms, and that she be cast forth. St. Joseph finds her, creates a castle for them to inhabit together, and restores her hands. Some time afterwards, the king, losing his way when out hunting, comes to the castle and asks St. Joseph for a night's lodging. In the morning his wife and child are restored to him.21
There is a Greek variant, entitled "La Belle sans Mains" (Legrand, Contes pop. Grecs, pp. 241-256), which story, says Legrand, is a feeble echo of the legend entitled "D'une reine du pays francs dont la toute-puissante Notre-Dame guérit les mains coupées". This legend was inserted by the Cretan monk Agapios in his Auaptwnwv Zwtnpia, a curious book, which is still as popular in Greece as it was two centuries ago. Probably Agapios was acquainted with some Italian imitation of the "Roman de la Manekine", of which he made use.22
These folk-tale examples will suffice for comparison with such of the legends as have more points of resemblance with stories of this class than with the story of Peau d'Ane.
After collating the several legends which bear upon the adventures of Cinderella in some of the numerous ramifications of the story, I found that M. le Comte de Puymaigre, in his work entitled Folklore (Paris, 1885, pp. 253-277), had made a précis of some of the same material. I am therefore glad to economise further time, having already given much to the subject, by here and there combining his work with my own in the remarks which follow. "La file aux mains coupées" forms the motif of his study in connection with the legends. Only one of the Cinderella variants, namely, the Serbian,23 contains the incident of cutting off the hand in order to repulse the unnatural father. M. de Puymaigre met with this in the course of translating Victorial; a book of the fifteenth century, by Gutierre Dias de Games, giving the life of Don Pero Niño, to whom Games was alferez. Accompanying Don Pero to France, Games became acquainted with an episode which he considered revealed the cause of the long wars between that country and England. Gaines relates how a certain duke of Guienne, after the death of his wife, fell in love with his own daughter,24 who, rather than that her father should kiss her hands, prevailed on a servant to cut them off. On discovering the mutilation, the enraged duke calls a council to consider what death she shall die. But the punishment which the law ordains for a woman of royal lineage is not death. She is accordingly put to sea alone in a boat, together with all her belongings, including a silver basin containing her hands and the blood. After much weeping and praying she falls asleep. The Virgin appears to her in a dream, and the girl prays her to restore her hands and take her safely to land. The Virgin promises her reward and honour. When the girl wakes, her hands are whole. A soft wind blowing from the French coast drives her boat to the shores of England. The son of the English king, returning with his fleet from Ireland, discovers her, listens to her strange eventful history, and marries her. Finally, when the Duc de Guienne dies, without heir, the English prince goes to Guienne, and claims the duchy for his wife. The French will not give it up, but drive him from the country. The duke had never been reconciled to his daughter, though he had heard of the miracle; and, feeling his end approaching, he had given the duchy to the King of France. This, says Games, was the beginning of the war which has lasted to the present day.25
The above theme, orally transmitted in the folk-tale at the present day, is found in most of the mediaeval literatures of the West, amongst Celts, Anglo-Saxons, and Normans. One of the oldest forms of the saga is that found in the Vitae duorum Offarum, by Matthew Paris.26
In the Vita Offae Primi we read of Offa as the king of the West Angles. One day, when hunting in the forest, he finds a beautiful maiden in royal garb. He questions her, and learns that her father, the king of York, had fallen in love with her, and, because she would not yield to his wishes, had caused her to be conveyed to a remote waste-land, there to be cruelly slain and left to the beasts. But the agents of this doom have spared her life. Offa takes her home with him, entrusts her to the care of certain courtiers, and some years afterwards makes her his wife, and she bears him lovely children. The king of Northumbria, harassed by the Scots and certain of his own subjects, seeks the aid of Offa, at the same time asking for the hand of his daughter, and promising to acknowledge him his sovereign. These terms are sworn on the Gospels. Offa sets off to the North, defeats the Scots, and sends his people the news of the war. The bearer of the letters is waylaid by Offa's son-in-law, who makes him drunk, and, whilst he sleeps, robs him of his letters,27 substituting others which announce that Offa has been vanquished, that he considers his misfortune a judgment of God on account of his sin in having married the forest girl, and that she and her children are accordingly to be conveyed to some desert place, and left to perish. This letter reaches its destination; the magnates dare not disobey; the queen is cast out; moved by her beauty, the executioners spare her, but hack the children in pieces. A hermit finds the queen through hearing the piercing cries which proceed from the corpses; he places the mutilated limbs together, and resuscitates the children through his prayers. When Offa returns he hears with horror of what has been done during his absence. Seeking to solace his grief in hunting, he one day finds in the cave of the hermit the wife and children whom he had believed dead. In his gratitude he vows to found a monastery at the hermit's request. But this promise is only redeemed by Offa II, in the founding of St. Alban's.
The more usual incident of the exposure in the boat28 has been reserved for the following story, related of the wife of King Offa II. There lived in the land of the Franks, a maiden of noble rank and of great beauty, but of evil disposition. She was a kinswoman of Charles the Great. On account of some disgraceful offence site was placed, with but scanty provision, in a boat with neither rudder nor sail, and abandoned to the waves. After long voyaging she landed in the kingdom of Offa, and being taken before the king, she related, in her mother tongue, the cause of her banishment. She had been sought in marriage by one of lowly birth, whom she had rejected, not wishing to debase the blood of her race; and it was in consequence of the schemes of this disappointed suitor that she had been exposed. Her name was Drida. King Offa confided the girl to the care of his mother, the Countess Marcella. As soon as she recovered her strength her old wildness returned with her beauty. Offa married her secretly; but, when his parents heard of it, they died of grief. Drida was called, after her marriage, Quendrida, i.e., Regina Drida. She was also called Petronilla.29
The same theme forms the basis of the Roman de la Manekine30 (MS. de la Bibliothèque Royale, No. 7609), written in verse by Philippe de Reimes, a trouvère of the thirteenth century.31 It tells how the King of Hungary, left a widower, is urged by his barons to marry again. Having promised the late queen that he would marry only a woman exactly resembling her, he now seeks to wed his daughter Joie. She, horrified at the proposal, cuts off her left band, which falls into the stream flowing beneath the kitchen where she performs the deed. Her father is furious, and condemns her to be burnt alive. A dummy (mannequin--whence the title of the roman) is put in Joie's place, and she is embarked, and lands in Scotland, where the king meets her, falls in love with her, and marries her. (The resemblance with the legend from Victorial ceases at this point, and the subsequent events run parallel with the incidents in that class of folk-tale of which I have given specimens.) During .the absence of her husband, who has gone to take part in a tournament arranged by the King of France, Joie bears a son. The mother-in-law intercepts the letter which should announce the news to the king, and substitutes another, saying that Joie has borne a monster. The king writes that nothing is to be done till his return; his mother exchanges this letter for one ordering the seneschal to burn Joie. Once more she is saved by the substitution of a dummy, and she embarks with her child. The king returns, learns the truth, locks up his mother, and sets out in search of his wife from Phrygia to India Major. After seven years he finds her in Rome, where she had found shelter in the house of a senator. The King of Hungary, overburdened with remorse, is there also, to make public confession in church. Witnessing his repentance, Joie makes herself known. Her hand, which had been swallowed by a sturgeon, is found in the fountain, and, in consequence of the Pope's benediction, it unites again with her arm.
Another version of the Manekine legend is related by Nicholas Trivet32 in his Anglo-Norman Chronicle. The date of this is 1334. Here there is no Catskin opening. The heroine is called Constance, and she is the daughter of the Emperor Tiberius Constantinus.
The Tale of Emare, in the Cotton MS. Caligula A. ii, printed by Ritson in his Ancient English Metrical Romances (London, 1802, vol. ii, pp. 204-247), seems, in all but its bad beginning, to be merely an older version of the Constance story.
The outline of Emare is as follows:--
An Emperor, named Artyus, and his wife Erayne, have a daughter Emare. On the death of Erayne the child is entrusted to a nurse named Abro. One day the Emperor, seeing his daughter clad in a wondrous cloth of gold, that had been presented to him by Sir Tergaunte, King of Sicily, falls in love with and seeks to wed her.33 He gets a bull from the Pope, but she refuses him, and is in consequence exposed, clad "in the robe of noble blue", in a boat which drifts to Galys. Here she becomes the wife of the king. Her husband joins the King of France in the war against the Saracens, and during his absence Emare bears a son, Segramour. The letter which should announce the news to the king is exchanged by the king's mother, and the false letter informs him that his wife has borne a monster. The kindly answer which he sends in return is converted by the queen-mother into a cruel sentence. Accordingly, Emare is a second time exposed. She arrives at Rome, and is taken to the house of a merchant named Iurdan. The king returns from the wars, and banishes his mother on discovering her treachery. After some years he goes to Rome to get absolution. He lodges at the house where Emare dwells, and is served by his own son. The old emperor, Emare's father, also goes to the Pope, and the joyful reunion ensues.
The same story has been versified at great length, with certain slight variations,34 and under different names, by the poet Gower, in the second book of his Confessio Amantis (vol. i, pp. 179-213, of Dr. Pauli's edition), and after him by Chaucer in his Man of Lawes Tale.35 The former, who makes the lady whom he calls Constance, or Custen, daughter of Tiberius Constantyn, a fabulous Christian Emperor of Rome, refers to "the cronike" as his authority.
The story likewise occurs, much altered and abridged, in Il Pecorone, by Ser Giovanni Fiorentino (Day I, Nov. 10). The following is an outline:--
The Princess Denise, of France, to avoid a disagreeable marriage with an old German prince, escapes into England, and is there received into a convent. The king, passing that way, falls in love with and espouses her. Afterwards, while he is engaged in a war in Scotland, his wife bears twins. The queen-mother sends to acquaint her son that his spouse has given birth to two monsters. In place of the king's answer ordering them to be nevertheless brought up with the utmost care, she substitutes a mandate for their destruction, and also for that of the queen. The person to whom the execution of this command is entrusted allows the queen to depart with her twin children to Genoa. At the end of some years, she discovers her husband at Rome on his way to a crusade; she there presents him with his children, and is brought back with him in triumph to England.
In Ritson's opinion, the author "may seem to have been indebted to a MS. of the National Library, Paris (No. 8701; a paper book written in 1370), entitled Fabula romanensis de rege Francorum, etc.;36 but there can be little doubt that this novel was adapted from Nicholas Trivet's Life of Constance, whose Chronicles were written at least forty years before Ser Giovanni began to compose his work in 1378 (it was not printed till 1558), while the Canterbury Tales were probably written very soon after, if not some of them before, that date.37
We meet with another version of the same theme in a German Volksbuch. Here it is used to point a moral as well as to adorn a tale, with the following title, both critical and exegetical: Eine schone anmuthige und lesenswürdige Historie von der geduldigen Helena, Tochter des Kaiser Antonii, welche in aller Gedult so viele Trangsalen und Widerwartigkeiten mit hochster Leidsamkeit und Starke sowohl bey Hofe, als in ihrer 22 jahrigen Wanderschaft ausgestanden. Allen Weibspersonen zum Beyspiel, denen kuriosen Liebhabern aber zum Schrocken in Druck gegeben. Koln am Rhein und Nurnberg. This romance, according to Gorres,38 is based upon an old poem under title: "Von eines Kuniges Tochter von Frankreich ein hübsches Lesen, wie der Künig sie selbst zuo der Ee wolt hon, des sie doch got von im behuot, und darumb sie vil trübsal und not erlidt, zuo letst ein Künigin in Engellant ward." But Merzdorf, who has made an elaborate study of this poem,39 agrees with Graesse40 in thinking the Volksbuch version an abridged translation of a twelfth century poetic romance by Alexander of Bernai or Paris, de la belle Helayne de Constantinople mère de Sainct Martin de Tours en Tourayne.
The epic poem by Hans von Bühel41 is in seventy-two quarto pages, and relates how a king of France, whose name is nowhere given, wanted to marry his own daughter, because she was the image of her deceased mother. The daughter escapes alone in a little ship from Calais, where she has been living with her father, taking with her provisions, and materials for working in silk. She is driven to England, landing near to London. Attracted by he smoke from a little hut, she induces the peasants whom she finds within to engage her to tend their cattle in return for her daily bread. She weaves some beautiful silk, and the peasant woman takes it to London for sale. The wife of the marshal going to mass, buys it of the woman who sits at the cathedral entrance, and also bids her bring all the silk she has to her. The marshal, seeing the work, the like of which could not be produced in all the kingdom, induces the peasant woman to reveal who has made it, and the end of it is that he visits the French princess, and takes her to live in his own house, and treats her as his own daughter. It being the custom of the king (who is also nameless) to visit the marshal's wife after the transaction of affairs with her husband, he chances one day to see the princess, falls in love with her, and shortly marries her with great ceremony and rejoicing. A sudden invasion of the country by the king of Ireland and Scotland necessitates the king's presence at the head of his army. The poem goes on to relate the usual sequence of events, namely, how during the king's absence the queen bore a son, and the marshal to whose care she was confided sent tidings thereof to the king; how the king's mother intercepted the letter, substituting another which stated that the queen had borne t monster--half human, half animal; how she also intercepted the king's reply, and gave orders to the marshal in the king's name to burn both queen and child; how the marshal burnt two animals in their stead, and put the queen and her child in the same ship which had brought her thither; how, after many hardships, she at length reached Rome, and took service with a citizen, minding his cattle and doing housework; how, after a time, the Pope took her son to live with him, and gave him land and people. And, at last, how the kings of England and France, both on account of their sins--the former having burnt his mother, the latter having desired to wed his daughter--came to Rome to seek absolution; how the joyful recognition ensued, and the heroine was taken home, after calling on the way at Paris, where the French king proclaimed his daughter heir to the throne. Having taken part in the rejoicings in England, the French king returns to his capital, falls ill, and dies, before his daughter and son-in-law can reach him; but when they arrive their sovereign right is acknowledged. The King of England and his son are recalled on account of another invasion of the King of Ireland and Scotland, and in the meantime the queen dies, and the throne of France is claimed by another king. Her husband is broken-hearted at her death, and determines to recover the French crown for his son. The poem ends by pointing out this explanation of England's claim to the throne of France, and of the long wars which ensued.
The poem consists of 15,000 rhymed verses. The Volksbuch has retained much of the naïf simplicity of the poem, though materially altering the plan. The King of France appears here as the Emperor Antonius of Constantinople; the Pope becomes the Patriarch of Naples. The queen bears two sons, who are carried off in the wilderness by a lion and a wolf, and saved by a hermit. Helena has her hands cut off for having driven the children away, and the niece of the Duke of Gloucester (who herein plays the role of the marshal) willingly gives herself to be burnt in Helena's stead. After many adventures, the two confederate kings meet with the hapless queen and her two children in Tours.
Still more intricate are the events related in the French version (alluded to above), published in quarto, at Paris, without date, under the title: Histoire de la belle Heleine de Constantinople, mere de St. Martin de Tours en Touraine et de St. Brice son frere.42 Heleine is the daughter of Antoine, king of Constantinople, who married the sister of Pope Clement IX. Heleine's mother dies when she is fifteen years old, and, after remaining a widower for a time, the king asks his brother-in-law for permission to marry Heleine, for there is none as lovely as she. This the Pope, at first, refuses, though he had undertaken to grant any request Antonius might make, in return for his help in repulsing the Saracens; but soon after he consents, in accordance with divine command, which an angel brings. But this authority avails him nothing, for when Antoine reveals his intentions to his daughter, she throws herself at his feet weeping, and protesting that she would rather out off her hands and feet than suffer it. Then follow the flight and various adventures. Counselled by a nun, Heleine escapes in a Flemish ship to Sluis (Port de l'Ecluse), where she enters a convent. Antonius, in his rage, takes ship after her, and sails through every sea of Europe in vain quest. She lives for many a year in her retreat, till Cantebron, King of Sluis, who has become enamoured of her, directs his body guard of Saracens to storm the convent and carry her to his seraglio. Heleine flees in a Spanish ship sailing to Catalonia. But the ship is wrecked, and all save Heleine perish, she being cast ashore on the English coast. King Henry of England, taking his pleasure on the sea, is astounded at her beauty and the richness of her attire, and he rescues her. His offer of marriage she accepts, though she declines to reveal her descent, and will only say that she is "la plus noble Damoiselle de la Chrétienté". The marriage takes place against the wish of Henry's mother. Once more the Saracens threaten Rome, and Pope Clement seeks the aid of the King of Great Britain. He gives it in person, leaving the Duke of Gloucester as regent, and confiding Heleine to his care. Then follows the birth of the children, which the mother, who waylays the messenger at Dover, pretends are dogs, and the fraudulent letters. The Duke of Gloucester cannot make up his mind to burn Heleine, as the false letter directs, so, after cutting off one of her arms, for some unexplained purpose, he puts her to sea. A niece of the duke's, named Marie, offers herself to be burned with two straw dolls in the place of the queen and her sons. The hand of the queen, which had been cut off, is put in a box, and hung round the neck of one of the children. The boat lands them in Brittany. Whilst Heleine sleeps, a lion and a wolf from the forest make away with her children. She seeks them in vain, wandering at length to the neighbourhood of Nantes, where she takes refuge in a deserted hut, and lives on the alms of the passers-by. A hermit saves the children, and calls one Lion and the other Arm (Bras). Meanwhile, King Henry has slain the Saracens, freed Pope Clement, and returned to London, to learn the sorrowful fate of his wife and children. He is still bewailing his misfortunes, when Antonius, King of Constantinople, who has never ceased seeking his daughter, arrives on the scene. The two kings sympathise with each other, and discover that they grieve for the same person. The Duke of Gloucester reveals the truth, and, convinced of the guilt of the queen-mother, the king orders her banishment. London being hateful to him, Henry joins the Kings of Scotland and Constantinople in the war against the heathen of Europe. They first vanquish Clovis, King of Bordeaux, who allows himself to be baptised, and then joins in the crusade. The hermit, meanwhile, has brought up the children, and when they are sixteen years of age he sends them forth to discover, if possible, their parentage. They come to Tours, where the archbishop himself receives them, and changes the name of Lion into Martin, and of Arm into Brice. Heleine, too, comes to Tours, and receives rich alms from Martin, who does not know her. And the four kings come to Tours, where the two promising youths are presented to them. When the King of England opens Brice's box and sees the hand, he is convinced that he has found his two sons. Martin seeks the poor, one-handed woman whom he supposes to be his mother; but, on the arrival of the kings, she had fled in alarm over the Alps to Rome. Here she is supported by the Pope, her unknown uncle. Brice is taken to London, there to make manifest the innocence of his mother, and then goes with the four kings to Palestine to fight against the Saracens, whilst Martin remains at Tours with the archbishop. When the Saracens are subdued the conquerors journey to Rome, whereupon Heleine flees to Tours, revealing in a letter to the Pope that she is his niece. The King of England learns through this letter that his wife is still living, and is at length reunited to her. The archbishop of Tours permits Martin to place his mother's severed hand on the stump, and the two are united by a miracle. Antonius, with Brice and his wife Ludiene, goes back to Constantinople, Henry and Heleine live with Clement in Rome, and Martin remains in Tours, where he becomes archbishop.43
The chap-book romances of Genoveva, Griseldis, Hirlanda,44 and Florentia may be referred to as variants of the story of the innocent persecuted wife, though it is unnecessary to cite them ii connection with the Catskin story.
The episode of the enamoured father and the flight of the daughter is related almost identically in the thirteenth-century romance of Mai and Bêaflôr.45 Bêaflôr is the daughter of the Roman Emperor Teljon. When her mother Sabie dies, she is brought up by a nurse, and afterwards by a senator and his wife. Her father, enamoured of her great beauty, seeks to wed her. She asks for fourteen days' grace, and in the mean time confides her father's purpose to her foster-parents. They fit out a ship and put her on board with provisions for two or three months, and with all the valuables inherited from her mother. Bêaflôr comes to "Meienlant", where Count Mai receives her, and gives her into his mother's care. Presently, after he has married her, contrary to his mother's wish, Mai is bent for to help his uncle in Spain against the heathen. During his absence, Bêaflôr bears a son; the news is sent to the count, but the messenger is intercepted by the mother-in- law at Claremont (Klaremunt), where she has gone to reside, and robbed of his letter whilst he is drunk, a false letter being substituted. On his return, he is again waylaid, and the count's letter is exchanged for one ordering the death of Bêaflôr. She is, however, rescued from this fate, and put in a boat with her child. Mai returns, and, learning all, stabs his mother and banishes the messenger. Bêaflôr drifts to Rome; the ship builder Thibalt recognises the boat he had built for her foster parents. Bêaflôr is again received into their home. Her child is taken to the cathedral to be christened by the Pope, receiving the name of Schoifloris (though in the course of the poem he is only called Lois). Mai comes to Rome after some years, to soothe his conscience, and Lois is sent to meet him. In this way he is subsequently re-united to Bêaflôr.
Mention must here be made of the similar case of the Countess of Anjou.46 (Manuscrits de la Bibliotheque du Roi, by Paulin Paris, vol. vi, p. 40). Her father falls in love with her during a game of chess, and she is forced to flee. After many wanderings, and all sorts of adventures, she marries the Count of Bourges, but the Countess of Chartres, his aunt, is furious at the misalliance--for she is ignorant of his wife's rank--and she plays the role usually assigned to the mothers-in-law.
I have reserved one other version of the ancient romance, this time attaching to the daughter of the King of Russia. Again, as in the folk-tales, this is a case of O matre pulchra filia pulchrior. Her story is said to have been composed by Giovanni Enenkel in the thirteenth century. I have taken it from the Gesammtabenteuer of Friedrich Heinrich von der Hagen (Stuttgart and Tubingen, 1850, ii, 590). It is called "Deu tochter des Kuniges von Reuzen".
This king has a beautiful wife, and a still more lovely daughter. When his wife dies he will marry no one who is not as lovely as his daughter. Messengers scour the land in fruitless quest for a fitting bride, and the king's lords persuade him to purchase the Pope's permission to marry his own daughter. When she under stands that the wedding preparations are for her father and herself, she tears off the wedding-gown, cuts off her hair, and scratches her face till it bleeds. Her father is enraged, and has her shut up in a barrel and thrown into the sea.47 The barrel gets carried to Greece, where the king espies it and has it landed. He marries the heroine. Then follow the incidents of the king's absence at the war, and the calumniated wife and intercepted letters. The heroine is put back into the barrel with her child, and the waves carry her into the Tiber, as far as Rome, where she is rescued by a nobleman. Eventually her husband finds her when he comes to Rome to do penances and the Russian king, her father, also coming to expiate his crime, is, in like manner, reunited to the heroine.
A drama, entitled "Un Miracle do Nostre-Dame", the author of which has taken his subject from the Roman de la Manekine, is published in the Theatre Francais au Moyen Age (publie d'apres les Manuscrits de la Bibliotheque du Roi, par MM. L. J. N. Monmerque et Francisque Michel [xi-xiv siècles], Paris, 1842. Pp. 481-500).48
The following is an outline of the plot as disclosed by the dramatis personae. King is counselled to marry, that he may have a male heir. He will only have a woman exactly like deceased wife, whom he dearly loved. Courtiers discuss the matter, and one chevalier suggests king's daughter as bride. They seek consent of Pope, who grants them a hull. King discloses his intention to daughter, who vainly tries to dissuade him. She prays to Virgin; cuts off her hand. King, enraged, orders her to be burned or hanged. Executioner is summoned. Courtier plans to save her life, and has her taken to his own house. Fire is kindled to delude king, who henceforth believes daughter is burned. Heroine is put alone in ship; is found by the provost of the king of Scotland. King questions her as to her parentage, etc. She says she is called Bethequine. Queen-mother befriends her, and she serves as chamber-maid. Presently queen ill-treats her, thinking she aspires to marriage with her son. King asks why she has been weeping; will marry her at Chester, and proclaim her queen. His mother is very angry. He is to attend tournament at Senlis; leaves his wife in provost's care; when her child is born they are to inform him by sealed letter. After king's departure, heroine bears a son. King's mother intercepts messenger, who is carrying news to king, makes him drunk, and changes letter for one announcing that young queen has borne a monster, which they have burned, and that they await orders whether to burn young queen also. King reads letter; sends written order by messenger, who is again intercepted by queen- mother, made drunk, and robbed of letter directing that queen and infant shall be kept apart in secret till his return. Queen-mother substitutes letter commanding that queen and progeny be instantly burned. Courtier, who reads king's letter, is filled with pity, and tells queen, who is dismayed and full of wonder, and prays to Virgin. Chevalier and provost take counsel together, and determine to save queen's life. They put her in a boat without rudder or helm, that she may be at the mercy of God. Lady insists on sharing her fate. She is rescued by a senator, who tells her he has landed near Rome, takes her to his wife, who befriends her, and lets her live with them. King of Scotland returns; inquires for wife and child. Chevalier says they have been burned according to his order. King says lie gave orders for them to be confined in a tower till his return. Letter is shown to him; he questions messenger; sends for mother, who, on being threatened, confesses, and is imprisoned for life. King will punish with death by burning the two courtiers who executed queen-mother's orders. They confess they disobeyed, and spared the young queen's life. He takes them with him, and sets out to seek her. They make pilgrimage to Rome. The king of Hungary is also going to confess to Pope his sin towards his daughter. Senator meets the king of Scotland; takes him to his house. Queen hides, being afraid to meet her husband. King sees the child playing with a ring which he recognises as one he gave his wife. Senator tells him how he found the child's mother, and how he has taken care of her. King embraces his wife. They attend the service at which the Pope is to give absolution to penitents. Here they see the king of Hungary. The queen recognises her father, who tells the king of Scotland of his wife's parentage. Service is about to commence. Clerk enters in great alarm to say he can get no drop of water from the river, because of a hand which keeps floating up to his bucket. He brings the hand to the Pope; queen says it is hers, and tells the Pope her story. He touches her arm with the hand, which immediately is reunited to it.
The same subject has found dramatic treatment in Italy, in La Rappresentazione di Santa Uliva (Pisa, 1863. The date of the 1st edition is not known). Alessandro d'Ancona has given an account of this play, which he publishes in his Sacre Rappresentazione dei Secoli, xiv, xv, xvi (Firenze, 1872. Vol. iii, pp. 235 seq.). The commencement is almost identical with that of the Manekine, except that a Roman emperor replaces the king of Hungary, and his daughter cuts off both her hands. She falls in with the king of Britain, who takes her to his palace, and gives her charge over the infant prince. A baron becomes enamoured of her, and, in repelling his advances, she upsets the cradle, which, as she has no hands, she is unable to replace. The baron accuses her of murdering the child, who has been killed by the fall. She is condemned to death, but the seneschal takes pity on her, and leads her to the forest in which she had been found. The Virgin appears to her, restores her hands, and points her to a convent where she can find shelter. A wicked priest accuses her of stealing a chalice. She is placed in a boat, and abandoned to the waves. Certain merchants come across her, and take her to the king of Castile, who marries her, and shortly afterwards leaves her to go to war. In the meantime Uliva bears a son, and receives precisely the same treatment from her mother-in-law as does Joie in the Manekine. Uliva is once more exposed in a boat, and arrives at length at Rome, where she finds her husband, who has come to seek absolution for having caused his mother's death in his wrath against her for her wicked machinations. The King of Castile recognises his wife, the emperor his daughter, and all ends happily.49
The Rappresentazione di Stella, also published in D'Ancona's Sacre Rappresentazione, has much the same incidents as the story of St. Uliva.50
Stella is the stepdaughter of the Empress of the French. The assassins to whom she is delivered during the emperor's absence spare her life, but cut off her hands to take as token to her step mother. The Duke of Burgundy finds Stella in the forest and weds her. It is the stepmother in this case who exchanges the letters.
The history of the daughter of the King of Dacia (Novella della figlia del re di Dacia. Pisa, i. 1866. Introd. by Wesselofsky) differs but little from the foregoing up to the point when Elisa reaches Rome. There a German prince, the Duke of Apardo, sees her, and falls in love with her. The miracles follow. Elisa recovers her hands; directed by celestial voices, Apardo inclines to wed the lovely stranger; and the marriage takes place, leading to the usual plots against the young wife. Once more in Rome, Elisa is engaged by a German nobleman as nurse to his son. The Duke of Apardo, visiting her master, recognises her as his wife.51
The greater part of these incidents are met with again in a Catalonian version,52 Historia del rey de Hungria, cited by le Comte de Puymaigre (Documentos de la corona de Aragon, vol. xiii. Documentos leterarios en antiqua lingua catalana. Siglo xiv y xv. Barcelona, 1857, pp; 53-79). In this the heroine, with her hands cut off, lands at Marseilles. The Count of Provence marries her in spite of his mother. Learning his wife's story, the count visits her father, the King of Hungary, who, now repentant, receives his son-in-law warmly, and detains him so long at the court that the wicked mother-in-law, during his absence, has time to carry out the usual plot against the young wife. The countess is set adrift on the sea, and lands near to a convent, where the abbess admits her. Five years afterwards, when one day she is at her orisons, she sees a priest who is wanting to say Mass, but has no one to serve it. She is filled with desire to assist him, and suddenly perceives two beautiful hands, which unite to her arms as she stretches them forth. Meanwhile, the count had returned to Marseilles; but, feeling angered against his mother, had determined to quit his estates only to return when he had found his wife. After thirteen years' quest, he finds her at the convent, and takes her back to Marseilles. They have many children. One of their daughters marries a king of France, another a king of Castile, and a third a king of England.
In the fifteenth century, Bartolomeo Fazio of Spezia wrote a story entitled De origine belli inter Gallos et Britannos, which he acknowledged to be based upon an ancient text in the vernacular.53 This professed history of the origin of the war between the French and English was forthwith related in Italian by Jacopo di Poggio Bracciolini,54 in a story which was published under the title Storia dell' origine della guerra tra i Francesi e gli Inglesi (Florence, 1542), republished as Novella di incerio autore (Florence, 1834), and as Novella della Pulzella di Francia dove si racconta l'origine delle guerre fra i Francesi e gli Inglesi (Lucca, 1850).55 Edward (Adoardo), King of England, has a beautiful wife and daughter. When his wife dies, she makes him promise never to marry another unless exactly like herself. After a time, the barons urge the king to marry, to secure a legitimate heir to the throne. He tells them of his promise, and ambassadors are sent in search of a fitting bride into every province of Christendom--through France, Spain, and many other countries--but all in vain. Then he is possessed with desire to wed his own daughter. She is alarmed and unhappy at the proposal; but, as her father persists, she urges him to send to the Pope, whose consent being obtained, she will object no further. Ambassadors are started, and in the meantime the daughter communicates with her uncle, the Duke of Lancaster, imploring his help. He fetches her away, and keeps her in hiding. The ambassadors return without the Pope's consent to the union; but the king receives the bull as though it were a dispensation, and sends for his daughter, who is not to be found. When the king applies for her to the Duke of Lancaster, she begs her uncle to find her shelter in a convent at Vienna. Thither he sends her under the charge of trusty servants. It is the custom of the dauphin of France to frequent this same nunnery in the company of a young nobleman, who is the abbess's brother. One day, the latter catches sight of the young princess through a grating, and every day, under pretence of praying, he comes to look at her. He falls ill, and confides the reason to the dauphin, who at length asks the abbess to interfere in her brother's behalf. Seeing him in danger of death, she is prevailed upon she talks to the princess, pointing out the difficulties and dangers inseparable from monastic life, and persuades her that marriage will ensure greater peace of mind. But the princess cannot consent to break her vows. Hearing of the girl's answer, and wishing to judge whether she who had caused his friend's illness merited so much love, the dauphin determines to have a look at her. Then he falls in love with her himself; and sends proposals of marriage, which she at first rejects, but eventually accepts. The dauphin's mother tries secretly to poison his bride, with the aid of some friends in Vienna. The King of France dies, and the dauphin must go to Paris to attend his funeral and be made king. His mother wants him to abandon his wife, who, she says, is some unknown waif. He is indignant at the request; and his mother, hearing from her friends in Vienna that the queen is too well guarded for them to poison her, bids them calumniate her to her husband. The young queen escapes to Rome with her little son and finds shelter. The Emperor Henry sees her, and engages her as nurse to his infant. Meanwhile, the dauphin, now king, having heard the false news of his wife's death, and of all his mother's infamous schemes, declares war against her. After three years he defeats her and slays her. Full of remorse, he journeys to Rome to seek absolution from the Pope. Dining one day with the Roman emperor, he is charmed with the graceful bearing of a young boy, and wants to take him away with him. It is the son of the nurse, in whom he recognises his wife. They return in triumph to his kingdom. When another son is born to him, he decides that the elder shall reign in France, and the younger shall succeed to the English throne, which his wife has inherited on the death of Edward. Furthermore, the king enacts in his will that every year, at Easter and at Christmas time, the King of England shall come to Paris and serve at the table of the King of France. This arrangement is observed for a number of years; but one day the King of Great Britain, ill-advised by his ministers, refuses to submit to the performance of such an act of homage; and this was the cause of the great wars, and of the animosity between the two kingdoms, which lasted up to the times of the author of this story.
There remains for comparison the legendary history of St. Dipne in the Flos Sanctorum.56 Mons. J. A. S. Collin de Plancy considers the story of Peau d'Ane to be entirely founded on the history of St. Dipne,57 of which he gives a precis in his Anecdotes du Dix-Neuvieme Siècle (Paris, 1821, vol. ii, pp. 219-23). It is, briefly, as follows:
A pagan king of Ireland has a lovely daughter named Dipne, who becomes a Christian, and resolves to live unwed. When the lovely queen, her mother, dies, the king can find none to equal her in beauty, and tries to induce his daughter to marry him. She becomes terrified, begs for forty days' grace, and com mends herself to the Saviour. Her father gives her jewels and costly garments. Towards the end of the forty days Dipne consults an Irish priest named Gerebert, who had been her mother's confessor. He advises her to endeavour to gain time in order to devise some means of flight; and he offers to accompany her. She therefore tells her father that she must have various precious stones to wear on the wedding-day. Her father expends large sums to procure what she exacts. Meanwhile, she embarks secretly with the priest, and they travel to Antwerp. They visit only out-of-the-way places, and presently build themselves a hut in a wood, where they live alone and unknown. The king learns of her escape the day after, is furious, and takes ship after her. After a long search he reaches Antwerp, where he stays whilst his people scour the neighbourhood. Some of his servants pay the innkeeper in a certain village in coin of their own country. The innkeeper says he has already taken some of the same money from a lovely Irish girl, who lives with a priest hard by. The servants report to the king, who finds his daughter, and, forgetting his anger at the sight of her, begs her to keep her promise at last. Gerebert attempts to intervene, and is taken without and killed by the king's followers. Dipne will yield neither to menace nor entreaty, and in his fury the king cuts off her head.
(St. Dipne is feted on the 15th May. Her martyrdom took place on the 30th of that month, in the year 6oo. Her relics are in the diocese of Cambray.)
The collation of similar legends and romances might doubtless be still extended.58 It seems, however, unnecessary to devote further space to the examination of this class of literature, more especially as the various motifs which it shares in common with the folk-tale are of such a nature as to need, unhappily, neither myth nor fiction to account for their origin, or to explain their application in any particular connection.
"Non ragionam di lor, ma guarda e passa."
The third, or "King Lear", branch of the Cinderella story has been exhaustively dealt with by Mr. Sidney Hartland in his study of "The Outcast Child" (Folk-lore Journal, iv, pp. 308-349), from which I quote the following particulars:--"We owe the story of King Lear to Geoffrey of Monmouth, whose narrative has been closely followed by Shakespeare It was written down in the middle of the twelfth century The originals which Geoffrey professes to have had before him in writing his Romances arc no longer extant. It seems likely he really had a collection of folk-tales, either Welsh or Armorican, made, either by himself, or (as he asserts) by another person, and brought to him by the Archdeacon Walter; but, if so, such collection has utterly disappeared . . . . The Gesta Romanorum was probably compiled originally in England at the end of the thirteenth century, or about one hundred and thirty to one hundred and fifty years after Geoffrey of Monmouth's Romances. This work was composed of tales having a more or less remotely popular origin, fitted with applications which treated them as parables suitable to be introduced into the discourses of mediaeval preachers. One of these tales, which is only found in the English manuscripts of the Gesta, is practically identical with that of King Lear and his three daughters."59 It is told of Theodosius, Emperor of Rome. Mr. Hartland thinks it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that the gest owes its existence to Geoffrey's account of King Lear. "But, if so, it seems likely that the parentage is not immediate, but that the story was verbally transmitted for some time before it was again put into writing."
The selection of the Hero-tales60 constituting group E. has been made with the view of embracing as many as possible of the separate incidents which are met with in stories of the "Cinderella" type. These examples are given merely for purposes of comparison, as it seemed inadvisable to pass them over entirely. A comprehensive collection of the hero-tales of this class would, however, fill another volume. I have included abstracts of all the stories kindly selected for me by Dr. Karlowicz of Warsaw, who rendered them into French from originals not accessible to the general reader. These stories appear in a more abridged form than the rest, because, as they were not received till part of the volume was in type, I was unable to avail myself of Dr. Karlowicz's generous offer to furnish me with more detailed versions.
It will be seen that the Norwegian stories, Nos. 319, 320, are extremely close parallels to the typical Cinderella story. We have the ill-treated child; the helpful ox; the ear cornucopia; the spy who is first sent to sleep, but afterwards discovers the magic source of food ; the proposed slaying of the helpful animal; the flight through the copper, silver, and gold forests; and finally just such alteration in the denouement as is the necessary consequence of assigning to a hero the role usually filled by a heroine. No. 336 is similar. In a Russian tale (No. 322) and in a German tale (No. 324) we have the despised youngest child with his hearth abode and significant nickname. In the same German story the goose-herd goes thrice in magic attire to the ball, and dances with the enamoured rose-girl, who, on the third night, puts pitch in his hair, so as to find him again. In the Polish story (No. 328), in the story from Little Jerut (No. 340), and in the South-German tale (No. 341), the ill-treated youngest child receives help from his dead father at the grave, just as Cinderella is helped by her dead mother. In the Roumanian story (No. 335) the cow-herd plants the laurel branches given him by the fairy, digs round them with a golden spade, waters them from the golden pot, and wipes them with the silken kerchief just as Cinderella does; and, moreover, he in like manner reminds the magic-tree of these attentions when he wants his wishes fulfilled. And just as the disagreeable sisters pull down the garden-wall, peat-heap, and bakehouse in the story from Jutland (No. 42), the barn and the church-wall in the story from Zealand (No. 46), the pear-tree and wicket in the Basque version (No. 125), whilst they remove the ladder, stick nails in the hoarding, and cut down the mulberry tree in the Magyar tale (No. 244), because these several points of vantage are believed to have afforded an outlook for Cinderella; so in the Hungarian tale (No. 338), the fence, stable, and roof are demolished because Aschenbrodel told his brothers that by surmounting these he was enabled to see the stranger knight. In a Polish story (No. 330) the hero is sentenced to death, but spared by the servant, who kills a dog instead. And, for a last comparison, as the heroine must hide her youth and beauty under an ugly skin or cloak, so in the Russian story (No. 321) we have the pigskin disguise of the hero, who becomes scullion at the palace; and in the modern Arabian story (No. 337) the rags which he buys from a beggar before hiring himself to drive the ox which turns the water-wheel in the king's garden.
Any further comment upon the stories is superfluous in a work which is enriched by an Introduction from the pen of Mr. Andrew Lang, the late President of the Folk-lore Society. I am happy in having "so strong a prop to support so weak a burden"; for, whatever regret the necessary incompleteness of the collection may occasion, one will never "be sorry" that CINDERELLA has had "so noble a godfather I leave it to [his] honourable survey."
In conclusion, I have gratefully to acknowledge the important and invaluable assistance which I have received from many quarters.
Mr. J. B. Andrews allowed me to use his MSS. prior to the publication of his interesting collection of Contes Ligures.
Signor Eugenio Casanova (sotto-archivista di Stato, Firenze) rendered into Italian and wrote out in full the variants printed in dialect in the collections of Coronedi-Berti, Gradi, and De Nino, copies of which books I had been unable to obtain. For this assistance I am indebted to the kind mediation of Signora Santarelli.
M. Chabaud, of Montpellier, furnished me with a French translation of a variant published in an old number, no longer procurable, of his Revue des Langues Romanes.
Mr. J. W. Crombie has taken many pains to procure me Spanish versions, of which he has also furnished translations.
The Rev. H. F. Feilberg (of Askov, Vejen St., Denmark), who volunteered to select and translate all Danish variants, has sent me in all over seventy different versions, including a number of Norse, Swedish, and other stories. He also gained access on my behalf to the valuable MS. collections of Dr. Kristensen and of Prof. Moe (to whose courtesy in this regard I am much beholden), and the sympathetic interest that he has from the first taken in my enterprise has served as valuable stimulus. It is Mr. Feilberg also who put me into communication with other learned folk-lorists abroad, whose contributions have been of so much value.
Mr. E. Sidney Hartland gave me at the outset much invaluable advice, and every possible encouragement. To ask of him is to obtain, and he has given his time most generously to translating Spanish, Portuguese, and baffling dialect versions, besides helping in other ways too numerous to state.
Dr. R. F. Kaindl (of Czernowitz, Buckowina) has communicated
with me respecting the Slavonic variants, but could add none to those
which I had already obtained.61
Dr. Karlowicz of Warsaw, to whose contributions I have already had occasion to refer, complied, with considerate promptness, with my request for information respecting Polish versions, and has made abstracts for me of no less than thirty-one stories, besides adding some interesting comments of his own (see note 71).
Dr. Krauss of Vienna kindly consented to publish in his periodical Am Ur-quell,62 for my immediate benefit, a story which he entitles "Aschenbrödel in Bosnien". Dr. Krauss's introductions to other distinguished folk-lorists have been of much service to me.
Dr. Kaarle Krohn of Helsingfors has selected fifteen Finnish stories from the wonderful MS. collections, and has himself done many of them into German for my service. Of the remainder, Dr. Krohn has procured me trustworthy French translations. He has also been kind enough to supply some important particulars anent the Finnish name for the heroine, which the translator had omitted to give. These will be found in a special note at the end of the volume.
Mr. Naaké's always ready help has been of a special and indispensable nature. He has read me many Russian and Polish stories, and has allowed me to consult him in every difficulty over he transliteration of Russian and Slavonic names and titles.
Mr. Nutt, at whose suggestion I have presented the mediaeval legends in some detail, has assisted me with references to works on mediaeval literature, and has allowed me to use books and notes which have been of much service. An interesting Gaelic story which Mr. Nutt has contributed is given on p. 534, with some other variants, which were received too late to be included in the text.
Dr. Pitré of Palermo favoured me with a long list of references, and very kindly rendered into Italian some of the dialect stories.
Dr. Sommer translated a Carinthian tale into literary German.
Sig. Vid Vuletic-Vukasovic has contributed an important unpublished variant, besides others. His interesting "Observations" on the story of Cinderella I give in full in note 66.
For the purposes of research in connection with the present study, I have been served with over two hundred and fifty works in the Library of the British Museum. It may not be out of place gratefully to acknowledge the invariable courtesy and readiness with which these services have been tendered.
Last, and not least, I must thank all those members of the Council of the Folk-lore Society who have afforded help of whatsoever kind.
The willing co-operation of so many folk-lorists, both at home and abroad, is gratifying evidence of the interest which the object of the present collection of variants has aroused. If the labour of which this volume is the outcome shall in any degree contribute to the settlement of the several interesting questions which gather round folk-tales, especially the question of the origin, independent or otherwise, of stories similar in their incident and widespread in their distribution, I shall in no wise begrudge the time which that labour has absorbed. There will remain the regret which invariably accompanies work of this kind--the non-attainment of finality where materials are ever pouring in; and experience of this has reconciled me to aim at only approximate completeness.
MARIAN ROALFE COX.
1: The term Hero-tales is here
employed to designate those tales in which the role of Cinderella
is filled by a hero instead of a heroine, and must not be understood to
imply tales belonging to heroic cycles.
3: E.g., I have not been
able to examine "La Zinderlazza" in the Ciaqlira dla Banzola,
o per dir mii Fol divers tradutt dal parlar napolitan in lengua bulgnesa
(Bologna, 1742) or "La Cenerentola" in Cinque Storie della
7: Perrault, xcv.
9: Athenaeum, Nov. 26, 1881,
10: Raszmann, Die Deutsche
Heldensage, i, 289 ff.
12: In the Norse epigonic poem
of the Ragnar Cycle, Crow says to the king at their meeting, "I dare
not break the command ye laid upon me, nor the order ye gave me, Ragnar.
There is no one with me; my body is not bare; I have smelt but at a leek;
I am come alone." (Corpus Poeticum Boreale, ii, 346.)
13: "I dare not take the
silver-broidered sark that Thora Hart had", she says in the poem,
''it will not befit me. I am called Crow because in coal-black raiment
I have tramped over the pebbles and driven the goats along the shore."
(C. P. B., ii, 347.) The date of these verses is the end of the
14: Contes pop. de la Grande
Bretagne, p. 44.
15: See Raszmann, Die Deutsche
Heldensage, ii, 176 ff.
16: See Grimm, Deutsche Rechtsalterthumer,
17: See also his Letture sopra
la mitologia Vedica, pp. 68, 69, 88, 89, and a paper on "Cattkin;
the English and Irish Peau d'Ane", contributed to Folk-lore Record,
iii, pt. 1, pp. 1-25, by Mr. Henry Charles Coote, who considers that Asia
saw the birth and first circulation of the story, its parentage being
a Vedic myth, afterwards embodied in the Rigveda. The solar, lunar, and
astronomical guises of Cinderella are paralleled by the different appearances
18: Nineteenth Century,
Nov. 1879, p. 848.
19: Max Muller, Lectures on
the Science of Language, sixth ed., ii, 557.
20: Callaway, Nursery Tales,
etc., of the Zulus, i, 300 n.
21: For other examples of stories
of this type, with certain modifications, cf. Archivio per lo studio
delle trad. popolari, vol. i, p. 520, "Madre Oliva"; Athanas'ev,
pt. 3, Nos. 6, 13; Blade, Contes de l'Armagnac, p. 53; Fleury,
Litt. orale de la Basse Normandie, p. 151; Karajich, No. 33; Nerucci,
No, 51; Pentamerone, "La Penta Manomozza"; Prohle, Kinder-und
Volksmarchen, No. 36; Prym and Socin, No. 52 (second half); Schneller,
No. 50; Sebillot, Contes pop. de la Haute Bretagne, i, No. 15;
Contes de paysans et de pecheurs, p. 215; Steere, Swahili Tales,
p. 393; Zingerle, ii, 124. Compare Grimm's "Girl
without Hands" and "Lo Castell de iras y no hi venras",
in Lo Rondallayre, pt i, p. 60.
22: Alessandro d'Ancona refers
to the Miracoli della Madonna as affording the theme of the
Rappresentasione di Stella. This book may have been in the hands of
24: Perhaps Eléonore of
Guienne, suggests M. de Puymaigre, the same Eléonore whose parents,
according to Philippe Mousket (Chronique, i, 245), were the Duc
d'Aquitaine and the devil who assumed the form of a woman. In such case
Games has mingled recollections of the first wife of Louis VII with a
fable of obvious antiquity.
25: As I have explained above,
the Comte de Puymaigre has studied the legends more especially in connection
with the incident of cutting off the hands. To cite his interesting remarks
upon the possible origin of this strange incident would be to digress
too widely from my own subject, I may say, however, that M. do Puymaigre
considers Games' version to be the most ancient of those that he has examined,
because it is the shortest and the least complicated. Games may have learnt
it from oral tradition, If he borrowed from the Manekine it would
be unlike his wont--so thinks M. de Puymaigre, judging from such evidence
as the Victorial affords--to refrain from giving the romance in
"AD. 796. Vitae duorum Offarum, sive Offanorum, Merciorum Regum, Coenobii Sancti Albani Fundatorum, per Matthoeum Paris.
"The elder Offa was the son of Warmund, king of the West Angles, who built the city of Warwick. His pretended history seems to be pure fable, based on the same materials that were used by Saxo Grammaticus in his account of Warmund and Offa but Saxo declares that the acts of Offa after Warmund's death were lost. In the Saxon genealogies of the Mercian kings, Warmund, the father of the elder Offa, was the fourth from Woden, and Crida, the seventh in descent from Warmund, was the first who reigned as king of Mercia.
"The life of the second or real Offa is, to a great
extent, as fabulous as that of the first Offa. The writer has taken as
his groundwork the few notices relating to Offa which occur in Henry of
Huntingdon and William of Malmesbury, and these he has enlarged or added
to at his pleasure. Now, there is not a single incident worthy of credit
in the whole of this biography that is not derived from these sources.
Wats is of opinion that though these two lives may not have been wholly
written by Matthew Paris, yet that the style had been polished by him.
That they were not both written by him seems pretty clear, as Wendover
had, previous to his time made use of the life of the historic Offa (see
Coxe's Roger of Wendover, vol. i, p. 251). We have the alternative,
therefore, of supposing that the life of the mythic Offa was written by
Matthew Paris, after his return from Norway, whither he had been sent
by Pope Innocent IV, in the year 1248, on a special mission, having possibly
been suggested to him, during his stay in Scandinavia or, that the tradition
carried with them into England by the Angles had been taken up and adapted
by Matthew Paris."
27: The incident of the intercepted
letter occurs in a number of folk-tales. For example, cf. Cosquin, Contes
pop. de Lorraine, ii, 108-9; Grimm, No.
29, "The Devil with the Three Golden Hairs"; and No.
31, "The Girl without Hands"; Maygar Folk-tales,
pp. 52, 185, 335; Satuja ja Tarinoita, "Antti Puuhaara."
Saxo relates how Amleth of Fengo is sent with a letter to the king of
Britain, ordering the death of the bearer. Compare the case of Bellerophon
(Iliad, vi, 155 sq.); also David's letter to Joab (2 Sam.
xi, 14); and the minister's plot against Chandrahasa frustrated by Bikya
in the Mahabharata.
28: The fable of Danaë, daughter
of Acrisius, may be considered the germ of the similar incident introduced
into so many of the legends. Danaë and her infant were exposed on
the sea in a chest, saved by some fishermen off the coast of the island
of Seriphus, and carried by them to Polydectes, king of that country,
who afterwards fell in love with her.
The punishment of exposure in an empty boat recurs in
the story of Ragnar Lodbrok (Lappenberg, i, 300).
29: See Hermann Suchier's "Sage
von Offa und Pryso" in Paul und Braune, Beitrage sur Geischichte
der deutschen Sprache und Literatur, vol. iv, pp. 500-21; Halle, 1877.
Suchier thinks the oldest versions of the saga are connected with the
story of Pryso in Beówulf (see op. cit., p. 518).
30: An analysis of la Manekine
is given in l'Histoire litteraire de la France, t. xxii, p. 864.
See also t. xv, p. 394; t. xxii, p. 228; t, xxiii, p. 680.
31: This is the Philippe of Beaumanoir
who wrote the Coutumes du Beauvoisis and the Blonde d'Oxford.
Suchier thinks (see op. cit.) that he most probably visited England
in his youth, and there made acquaintance with the Manekine. He
considers it improbable that the Vita Offa Primi was his source,
as Philippe's version does not share in its disfigurements.
32: Nicholas Trivet was art English
Dominican friar. He is said to have been educated in his early years in
London, and afterwards to have studied at Oxford. He informs us, in the
prologue to the Annales Regum Angliae that he spent some time in
study in Paris.
33: Gower and Chaucer relate this
part of the story in a different way, omitting the Catskin incident.
34: For the chief alterations
see preface to Trivet's Life of Constance in Originals and Analogues
of some of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, edited by Furnivall, Brock,
and Clouston, p. vi.
35: Chaucer tells the story in
much shorter compass. For any striking differences see op. cit.,
36: The full title is Fabula
romanensis de rege Francorum, cujus nomen reticetur, qui in filia sua
adulterium et incestum committere voluit.
37: See Clouston on "The
Innocent Persecuted Wife", in Originals and Analogues, pp.
38: J. Gorres, Die teutschen
Volksbucher (Heidelberg, 1807, p. 136, No. 18).
39: See Des Buheler's Königstochter
von Frankreich, von Theod. Merzdorf; Oldenburg, 1867.
40: See Graesse, Die Grossen
Sagenkreise des Mittelalters.
41: Hans der Büheler, or
Hans von Bühel, was in the service of the Archbishop of Cologne,
Friederich von Sarwenden, and was settled in Boppelstorf, near Bonn, in
the beginning of the fifteenth century.
42: Heleine's adventures are thus
made to take place in the fourth century, if she was the mother of Martin,
Bishop of Tours (374).
43: For further details, see Gorres,
op. cit., p. 138; and Ch. Nisard, Histoire des livres populaires,
i, pp. 415 ff. The same legend is told also in Backstrom's Svenska
Folkbocker, i, 188, "Helena Antonia af Constantinopel";
and in R. Nyerup's Morskabstasning: Danmark og Norge (1816), p.
138, "Den talmodige Helene". (See Merzdorf, op. cit.,
pp. 18 ff. for references to Dutch, Danish, and Swedish translations.
44: Reinhold Kohler (in Revue
Celtique, t. i. pp. 222 ff.) points out the resemblance between the
Breton mystery of "Sainte Tryphine et le roi Arthur' (ed. by Luzel)
and the story of Hirlanda, as related by Père René de Ceriziers
in his Trois Estats de l'Innocence, contenant l'histoire de la Pucelle
d'Orleons, ou l'Innocence Affigee; De Genevieve, ou l'Innocence Reconnue;
D'Hirlande, ou l'Innocence Couronnée (reprinted several times
since 1640). He refers to the chap-book version of Hirlanda given by Gorres
in his Die Teutschen Volksbucher (Heidelberg, 1807), p. 146.
45: See [Pfeiffer in] Mai and
Beaflor, 1st ed. (1848), pp. v-xv. Merzdorf, op. cit., refers
to Mai and Beaflor, a paper MS. of the fifteenth century in the
Munich State Library (Cod. germ. 521). Cf. also Graesse, Die
grossen Sagenkreise des Mittelalters, p. 285.
46: D'Ancona (Sacre Rapp.,
iii, 200) notices an obscure play, or poem, of the sixteenth century,
entitled "Del duca d'Angio e de Costanza so mojer", from an
account of it by Adolfo Mussafia, contained in the Atti dell' Academia
di Vienna, 1866 (see Clouston, in op. cit., p. 404 ff.).
47: In the Gwerziou-Breiz-isel,
Saint Honorine is persecuted and cast into the sea in a barrel. Similarly,
in Weckerlin's Chansons populaires de l'Alsace, Saint Odile is
by her father's order put into a barrel and abandoned to the waves.
48: In his Preface to the Mysteres
Inedits du Quinzieme Siecle (publies pour la premiere fois, par Achille
Jubinal; Paris, 1837), Jubinal gives a table of the Mysteries in the MSS.
de la Bibi. du Roi, and on p. xxviii, vol. i, this note:-- "Cy commence
un miracle de Notre-Dame, de la fille d'un roi qui se parti d'avec son
pere pour ce que il la vouloit espouser, et laissa habit de femme, et
se mainteint com chevalier et fu sodoier de l'empereur de Constantinoble,
et depuis fu sa femme" (vol. ii, cote 7208 B.), folio 221.
49: Herr Wesselofsky thinks he
recognises in the rappresentazione certain traits in the
life of Saint Uliva of Palermo, as recounted by the Bollandists. There
is, however, no trace of the unlawful marriage episode, or of the cutting
off of the hands, in the Acta Sanctorum, in connection with this
saint, whose persecutions are of a different character. According to Herr
Wesselofsky, the legend has its origin in a myth, which, like many another
myth, having lost all symbolical character, becomes a simple narrative.
So, the queen who dies is the goddess of the departing summer; her daughter,
the goddess of the coming year; the father is the god Wotan; the hunter
who discovers the fugitive is winter; the cut-off hands are the falling
leaves ; etc., etc. The explanation is too elaborate to be further detailed
here. (See his treatment of the subject of "La Fanciulla Perseguitata"
in Novella della Figlia del Re di Dacia, Pisa, 1866, pp. xxxi et
seq. Cf. Kuhn, Nordd. Sag., 489.)
50: See Giudici's Storia del
Teatro in Italia, i, 333-358.
51: See Liebrecht on the subject
of the Figlia del re di Dacia in Gotting, Gelehr, Anz., 1867, p.
52: See Wolf, Wiener Jahrbucher,
cxix, p. 241; cxx, p. 94.
53: Bartholomaei Facii ad Carolum
Ventimilium virum clarissimum de origine belli inter Gallos et Britannos
54: Poggio died in 1478. In Pecorone
we read of a royal daughter much resembling this daughter of the King
of England. Molza tells the same story without notable difference.
55: For particulars of the various
editions, see Wesselofsky, op. cit., cvi et seq.
56: See also Razzi, Vite di
illustri Donne, iii, 43.
57: The legend of St. Dipne is
not included in the earliest editions of Ribadeneira's Flos Sanctorum
o libro de las vidas de los Santos. Neither is it in the folio edition
published at Barcelona in 1643, nor in the Italian quarto published at
Venetia, 1680. I can only find the legend, as given above, in a French
edition by René Gautier of Ribadeneira's "Les Fleurs des Vies
des Saints", to which are added some lives of other Saints by André
du Val; Paris, 1686. It is probably superfluous to point out that there
exist literary versions of the story of "Peau d'Ane" at least
earlier than the record of this legend. Straparola had used the "unnatural
father" motif more than a century before.
58: The following references may
be of service to the student:--Dunlop-Liebrecht, Geschichte der Prosadichtungen
(1851), pp. 265-6. Gidel, Etudes sur la litterature grecque moderne
(1866), pp. 289-301. Paul Meyer, in Revue Critique (1866), ii,
393. Bordier, Phillipe de Remi sire de Beaumanoir (1873), 2: 163-72.
59: Gesta Romanorum, London,
Geo. Bell and Sons, 1877, p. xxxix.
60: See note on p. xxv, ante.
61: Dr. Kaindl pointed out to
me certain resemblances in the stories "Gut und Bos" and "Die
Teufelsmuhle" in Die Rutenen in der Bukowina, von Kaindl und
Manastyrski, a copy of which he kindly sent me. These stories, however,
cannot be considered Cinderella variants. In his letter to me, Dr. Kaindl
aptly recalls the following sentence from Uhland's Schriften zur Geschichte
der Dichtung und Sage (vol. viii, p. 610): "Warum soll nicht
über Aschenbrodel in einer Vorlesung gesprochen werden? Es wurde
daruber gepredigt, gepredigt von der kunstreichen Kanzel des Strassburger
62: Am Ur-Quell, Band iii,
Heft iv, s. 129-135. "Aschenbrodel in Bosnien," I have not included
this among the variants, as it is scarcely a typical Cinderella story.
But Dr. Krauss's opinion is of interest; I therefore translate the following
remarks from his letter: ''The story of Cinderella in its wanderings to
Bosnia must of necessity have lost the incident of the little shoe; in
the first place, because Bosnians wear no shoes at all, only opanken,
a kind of sandal; secondly, because in the eyes of the Bosnians a large
foot is an advantage rather than an objection-- certainly no detriment
to beauty; thirdly, because the manner of wooing, as related in German
marchen, is quite unlike any Bosnian custom."
Cox, Marian Roalfe. Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap O' Rushes, abstracted and tabulated. London: David Nutt for the Folklore Society, 1893.
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