on the page number to see the tale connected to the note.
(P. 128.) For objects taken out of animals' ears or horns, cf. Folk-lore Record, ii, 188, Irish story of "Conn-Eda" (balsam, a basket of meat, and a knife, from horse's ear); ib., iii, 214, Danish story of "Mons Tro" (food and drink from horse's ears). In the Mongolian story (see Folk-lore Journal, iii, 321), an old man cuts his ox on the spine and lets it loose in a field. A magpie pecks at the sore, a wolf tears the ox from behind, a fox falls on it in front. The head alone is left, and says to old man: "Do not grieve; break my head in pieces, and in the two horns you will find enough to support you without alms for six years." Old man finds in one horn silver and in the other gold. See de Gubernatis, Zool. Myth., i, 179-81; Luzel, Basse-Bretagne, legende ii, 264; MacInnes, Folk and Hero Tales from Argyllshire, pp. 173 (wine and bread from horse, who is transformed old man), 437. In ib., p. 1 ff., a thorn and stone from horse's ear create obstacles to pursuit, like the twig of sloe and the bladder of water from the ear of the grey filly in "The Battle of the Birds" (Campbell, i, 32-34).
Compare the goat Amaltheia, whose horn supplied the nymphs who had nursed Zeus with all they wished for. Another legend makes the nymph Amaltheia possess a bull's horn which gives all manner of meat and drink. This is the cornucopia of the goddess Fortuna. Grimm connects with this the [Greek name] of Luke i, 69. (Teut. Myth., 871, 872, 1569.) Perhaps one may equally compare the horn of David which was to bud, or, in the words of the LXXX [Greek name] (Ps. cxxxi, 17), and [Greek name] (Ez. xxix, 21). Oberon's horn was a wishing-horn. In No. 45 of this collection the heroine holds the green leaf behind the ear of the red calf, and wishes for food. In the Pentamerone (Liebrecht, ii, 112) we read of sitting down on the horns of a dead ox. These prove to be horns of plenty. In No. 98 the heroine cuts off the bull's horn and keeps her dresses in it. The ear cornucopia occurs in Nos. 13, 30, 45, 59, 99, 109, 110, 118; and in the hero tales, Nos. 336, 339 (in the latter the horn, when broken off the dead ox, still retains its magical virtue); also in "The Black Bull of Norroway" (see note 13). In No. 25 the cow gives milk; in No. 26 the sheep brings meat; in No. 82 the heroine must touch the horns of the ox with one end of the magic wand to get food, and with the other end to get drink; in No. 123, she must knock the old man's drawing of a sheep when she wants food, and in No. 228 she bows to the cow's right foot to obtain it. In Nos. 230, 232, and 233 she must gently strike the black sheep with her wand, and a table is spread; in No. 236 the goat covers a table with food, and in No. 242 the bull opens with its horns the oak-tree containing the food-supply. In No. 319 the hero takes a pipe out of the ox's left ear, and instantly the magic table-cloth appears; while in No. 331 the magic food-producing cloth is in the cow's right horn, which screws off. (In No. 10 the dead mother gives the food-producing cloth.) In No. 332 the hero strokes the bull's back to get food. In No. 320 he sucks the teat of the ewe and the ear of the ox.
In No. 227 the heroine's task is performed through her creeping in at one of the cow's ears and out at the other; while in Nos. 54 and 127 the cow chews the flax and the thread comes out at her ear, and in No. 70 the flax is put in at one ear and the linen drawn out at the other.
In No. 52 the goat spins the wool on his horns, and in No. 92 the ewe does the work placed between her horns. In No. 34 the cow winds skeins, and in No. 89 she also hollows out the loaf with her horn. In Nos. 24, 240, and 249 she spins, and in Nos. 237, 246, 247, 249 she spins and winds. In No. 243 the black lamb spins.
Prof. Moe notes a story in J. H. Wang's Ti norske Eventyr (Throndhjem, 1868, pp. 8, 10, 11), called "Pigen og Lammet", wherein the girl drinks the blood of a living lamb, and it is changed into a costly drink; she eats its ears, and they are changed to costly dishes.
In Nos. 25 and 320 the stepchild is nourished with the milk of the helpful animal. In "Les Deux Orphelins" (Rivière, Contes Kabyles, p. 67)--of which story, as belonging to the Cinderella type, an abstract may here be given:-- the boy and girl drink the milk of the pet cow bequeathed to them by their dead mother. Discovering this, the stepmother's children attempt likewise to suck the cow, and the girl is kicked and blinded. Father at length almost yields to wife's entreaty to sell cow, when an angel appears warning him not to do so. On the following day, however, he sells it, and the orphans weep on their mother's grave. Mother bids them beg the butcher for the cow's intestines, and lay them on her grave. They do so, and two teats appear on the spot, one yielding butter, the other honey for the children's support. But when stepmother's children, again sent to spy, would likewise suck, they get only filth and pitch in their mouths. Next day stepmother digs up the teats and throws them away, and the dead mother, no longer able to help her children, sends them away to beg. They reach a palace, and are admitted as servants. After a time the sultan marries the girl, and her biother eventually becomes sultan himself.
(P. 138.) In Cosquin's No. LXXVIII (Contes lorrains, ii, 323), the daughter of a merchant of Lyons is hated by her mother, who tells servant to kill her and bring back her heart "tout vif". The servant takes a dog's heart to his mistress, and the girl hides in a hollow oak-tree, where she is found by the count, who is out hunting. Similarly, in the "Histoire de la file vertueuse" (Spitta-Bey, Contes Arabes Modernes, story No. VI, p. 87), the heroine is calumniated to father during his absence from home, and he sends her brother to slay her, and bring a flask of her blood in proof of her death. Brother spares her life, leaving her in the desert, kills a gazelle, and takes its blood to father. Heroine climbs a tree to be safe from wild beasts, and is discovered by king's son, who is out gazelle-huning. He promises to protect her if she will descend, and he carries her on horseback behind him to the palace. He marries her; and, after subsequent dangers and escape from treachery during his absence, heroine changes clothes with a shepherd lad, and gets engaged at a coffee house to wash the cups. Here she is afterwards found by her father and husband. The usual Nemesis overtakes the villains, who are burnt to death.
Grimm says (Teut. Myth., 57) that it is probable that certain nobler parts of a sacrificed animal--the head, liver, heart, tongue--were assigned to the gods [Greek name], Plutarch, Phoc. 1. [Greek name], Od. 3, 332, 341. Cf. "De linguae usu in Sacrificiis," Nitzsch ad Hom.. Od. I, 207); and that the slayer in folk-tales is told to bring the tongue or heart of the man or beast, as being eminent portions. They would certainly be useless in identifying the victim.
For the incident of substituting an animal's heart or tongue for that of the intended victim, or soaking the clothes in the blood of some slain animal, cf. Arnason, Icelandic Tales (P. and M.), p. 413; Clouston, ii, 464 (for story in the Kathá Kosa); Comparetti, i, 242, No. 56; Fleury, Litt.orale, etc., p.123; Folk-lore Journal, ii, 136 (a Malagasy tale); vi, 42 (Aino tale), "The Wicked Stepmother"; Gesta Romanorum (Swan), ch. 20; Gonzenbach, No. 4; Grimm, Nos. 31, 33; Gipsy-lore Journal, iii, 202; De Gubernatis, Sto. Stefano, No. 13; Zool. Myth. i, 139 (citing from Radloff, Proben der Volkslitteratur der turkischen Stämme Sud-Sibiriens); Karajich, No. 33; Legrand, p. 24; Melusine, i, col. 300; Nerucci, Sessanta Nov., No. 51; Pedroso, Port. Folk-tales, No. 1; Romero, p. 12, No. 3; Sagas from Ear East, p. 73; Schneller. No. 50; Spitta-Bey, No. 6; Visentini, Fiabe Mantovane, p. 121, No. 23; Webster, p. 137.
Compare the story of Ferdinando, who orders the murder of his wife Genoveva, in the legend of that saint. Joseph's coat was dipped in kid's blood (Gen. xxxvii, 31).
See also Nos. 58, 209, 210, 211, 226, 286, 304, 312, 315, 316 (317, 318) and the hero-tale, No. 330, of this collection. In No. 204 the dog spares heroine, and takes back to his master the heart of a hare.
(P. 143.) In connection with this incident, so common in folk-tales, of the child receiving help from a dead parent, either at the tomb (as in Nos. 33, 38, 64, 70, 96, 147, 153, 197, 199, 204, and hero-tales Nos. 328, 340, 341), or through an apparition in a dream (as in Nos. 9, 10, 202, 277 [311, not in dream]), the following parallels may be cited:--Young Swipday (in the "Lay of Swipday and Menglad", Corpus Poet. Boreale, i, 93), bound by a cruel stepmother to ride into Giant-land and win the giant-guarded maiden of the enchanted castle, raises his dead mother and obtains charms from her, enabling him to accomplish his task. With Swipday compare Ericus Disertus in Saxo (see Rydberg, Teut. Myth., p. 102). In the same way, at the son's adjurstion, a sword is handed out of the tomb in the folk-song of Orm (Sv. fornsanger, 2, 446-7; Danske viser, 1, 59, 60-6-7), and in a Faroe song of Virgar (Lyngbye, p. 369). Wolfdietrich constrains the dead tongue of his buried father to utter seven words (Cod. Dresd., 313). The child talks with the mother at her grave (Rhesa dainos, 22). Eulogies sung at the grave-mound are mentioned in Hallbiörn, p. 859. Raising the dead comes easy to Christian saints, but it was more than Zeus could do: [Greek name], Aesch, Eum., 649. "Linguae defuncti dira carmina ligno insculpta supponere", forces him to speak (Saxo, ed. M., 38); see Grimm, Teut. Myth., 1229, 1693.
Cf. Frere, O. D. D., No. 1, "Punchkin"; Rivière, Contes pop. Kabyles, p. 67, "Les Deux Orphelins"; Kreutzwald, Ehstnische Mar., No. 15; Ralston, R. F. T., pp. 159, 259 ff.; Cosquin, ii, 69. Help is obtained at the grave of the dead mother in Nos. 17, 19, 37, 43, 47, 50, 87, 124, 265, 266; of the helpful animal in No. 93; of the transformed mother in Nos. 31, 54, 95, 101, 102, 127; and of the dead father in Nos. 328, 340, 341. Comp. Schiefner, No. 4.
(P. 144) The stepmother is made to eat her own child in the following stories: Gonzenbach, Nos. 33, 34, 48, 49; Müllenhoff, p. 18; Pitré, No. 59; Rivière, Contes Kabyles, p. 55; Stokes, No. 2; Temple, Legends of the Punjab, p. 64. See also Nos. 9, 10, 68, and 69 of this collection.
In the "Lay of Atli" Gudrun slays her children, serves their roasted hearts to Atli their father, telling him they are calves' hearts, and mixes their blood with his drink (Corpus Poeticum Boreale, i, 343). So the murdered child is served up to the father in Grimm's "Juniper-Tree" (No. 47) and variants. Cf. Henderson, Northern Counties, 1st ed., p.314, "The Rose-Tree"; Magyar Folk-tales, p. 298, "The Crow's Nest"; and the version from Holderness, ib., p. 418, "Oranges and Lemons." In a story current among the Turanian tribes of South Siberia (cited by de Gubernatis, Z. M., i, 139, from Radloff) the hero gives the flesh of his own father to his two wives to eat. Compare the Cronos myth. Tantalus has his son Pelops cut up and boiled, and set before the gods. Demeter alone (being absorbed in her grief) eats of the dish.
(P. 149.) In "Jamfrju Solntaar" (see A. E. Vang's Gamla Reglo aa Rispo ifraa Valdris, Christiania, 1850, p. 66), the hero, who is in quest of a stolen princess, gets a magic horse, which says, "White before and black behind! Nobody shall see where I go!" The hero passes three nights with three friendly trolls, and eventually carries off the princess on horseback.
In some of the stories the heroine effects her escape by surrounding herself with mist. See Nos. 57 (soap and threads create mist), 88, 94, 183 (ashes scattered turn to mist), 204, 207, 269 (mist, rain, and wind), and 281. In No. 38 the heroine, and in No. 332 the hero make use of a bag of mist. This recalls the bag of the winds which Aeolus gave to Ulysses in the 10th Od. In Greek mythology, the gods, to screen themselves from sight, shed a mist around; in the same way they protect their favourites, withdrawing them from the enemy's eye. Comp. Iliad, 3, 381; 5, 776; 18, 205; 21, 549, 597. It is called [Greek names].
(P. 152.) A magic tree springs from some buried portion of the helpful animal in Nos. 52, 70, 101 (from three drops of sheep's blood), 102, 227, 228, 230, 232, 236, 242, 243, and 249; and from the buried mother in No. 95. In No. 101 the sheep, as in No. 102 the ox, is the mother transformed. In 233 the bones of helpful animal laid on pear-tree cause its branches to be decked with golden bells. (A house springs from the buried ox in No. 13.)
In a story from Abyssinia (Reinisch, Die Nuba Sprache, Vienna, 1879, I, 221) seven palm-trees grow on the spot where the girl buries the bones of her seven brothers. The mother is buried under a tree in No. 17, and help is obtained at her grave. A tree is planted on mother's grave in Nos. 19, 37, and 62. There is a treasure-tree in Nos. 13, 36, 38, 42, 47, 49, 52, 58, 61, 75, 77, 95, 96, 112, 126, 204, 242, 255, 306, and in the hero-tales 340 and 341; and a wishing-tree in Nos. 47 and 335. In No. 123 old man draws a tree which heroine must knock to get dresses, etc. In Nos. 7, 18, and 295 the heroine plants magical trees.
Cf. Gipsy-lore Journal, i, 84, "Tale of a Foolish Brother and of a Wonderful Bush"; Children's Legends, No. 10, "The Hazel Branch" (in Grimm's H. T.). For wishing-trees, cf. Dasent, liv, and pp. 420, 433; Grimm's "Juniper-tree"; and comp. the wishing-tree that bears clothes, trinkets, etc., and wine, in Meghadhuta (ed. Schutz, pp. 25-7), and the five trees in Indra's heavenly paradise which grant every wish. In Somadeva, 2, 84, we find the Indian's Kalpa Vriksha (tree of wishes), or Manoratha-dayaka (wish-giving). See Grimm, Teut. Myth., 872. In "Punchkin", the tree growing on mother's grave gives fruit. For speaking-trees, cf. Callaway, Zulu Folk-tales, p. 188; Dasent, pp. 113, 428, 440; Day, Folk-tales of Bengal, p. 281; Stokes, Indian Fairy Tales, p. 202; Theal, p. 50 (trees which laugh); Thorpe, Yule-tide Stories, pp. 17, 43, 99, 369, 429; Wide-Awake Stories, 179-80, 181-3. Comp. Hiawatha's appeal to forest trees, and the green reed's address to Psyche (Apuleius). See also Grimm's T. M., 1202, note. For other magical trees, cf. Callaway, pp. 51, 218; Campbell, i, 236, 237; Grey, Polyn. Myth., 111-114; Tylor, Early Hist., p. 356. Mr. Frazer, in The Golden Bough (i, 62), refers to the belief that the souls of the dead animate trees. "The Dieyerie tribe of South Australia regard as very sacred certain trees, which are supposed to be their fathers transformed; hence they will not cut the trees down, and protest against the settlers doing so. (Native Tribes of S. Australia, p. 280.) Some of the Philippine Islanders believe that the souls of their forefathers, are in certain trees, which they therefore spare. . . (Mittheilungen der Wiener Geogr. Gesellschaft, 1882, p. 165 seq.) In an Annamite story an old fisherman makes an incision in the trunk of a tree which has drifted ashore; but blood flows from the cut, and it appears that an empress and her three daughters, who had been cast into the sea, are embodied in the tree. (Landes, Contes et legendes Annamites, No. 9.) The story of Polydorus will occur to readers of Virgil. Compare Nos. 68, 69, and 231, in which the heroine is for a time embodied in a tree.
The Langobards worshipped the so-called blood-tree or holy-tree, and Saint Barbatus preached in vain against the practice. (Acta Sanctor., under Feb. 19th, p. 139.) Barbatus was born c. 602, died c. 683. See Grimm, T. M., 650 ff., and 1480, upon this subject, and upon the veneration of certain trees. A young willow planted in the mouth of a dead foal or calf must never be lopped or polled. (Stendal in Altmark. allg. anz. der Deut., 1811, No. 306; cf. Müllenhoff, No. 327.) A man in Sudermania was on the point of cutting down a juniper-tree, disregarding the warning voice which bade him desist. At the second stroke blood flowed from the root, and the hewer went home and fell ill (Afzelius, 2, 147). An Austrian märchen (Ziska, 38-42) tells of the stately fir in which there sits a fay waited on by dwarfs, rewarding the innocent and plaguing the guilty; and a Servian song of the maiden in the pine. A holy oak grows out of the mouth of a slain king (Harrys, i, No. 55).
In Zbiór wiadomosci do antropologji Krajowej, Cracow, 1877-92, vol. viii, pp. 292-293, the following story is related as explanation of the belief attaching to the lime-tree, which is said never to be struck by lightning. Stepmother has stepdaughter who minds the cattle and wears a cloak made of pigs' skins, because stepmother will give her nothing better. She always prays before a lime-tree. On one occasion the holy Virgin comes out of the tree and asks what her cloak is made of; feels pity for her, takes off her own dress and gives it her instead of pig-skins. (Taken down in 1883 by Mme. S. Ulanowska in the village of Lukowek, near to Garwolin, government of Siedlce.) In No. 15, heroine obtains help from the lime-tree queen; in No. 57, from the lady in the fir-tree (probably the Virgin); and in No. 58, from the Virgin in the hollow oak-tree. An old woman comes out of the lime-tree in No. 77.
(P. 152.) For "substituted bride", see Arnason, p. 443. Asbjornsen, Tales from the Fjeld, p. 156. Buchon, La Grece continentale, etc., p. 263. Busk, F.-L. R. p. 1, "Filagranata," Nos. 2, 3; and "Palombetta," p 22; p. 40, "The King who goes out to dinner." Callaway, Zulu Tales, p. 120, "Ukcombekcantsini." Campbell, iv, 294. Chambers, 95, 99. Chodzko, p. 315. Cosquin, i, 232; ii, 42, 249. Crane, 58, 338. Dasent, "The Lassie and her Godmother", and "Bushy Bride". Denton, p. 191. Folk-lore Rec., iii, 146. Folk-lore Journal, i, 222; ii, 242; iii, 292. Friis, Lappiske Eventyr, "Haccis-aedne." Geldart, p. 63, "The Knife of Slaughter." Gerle, Volksmärchen der Bohmen, No. 5, "Die goldne Ente." Gonzenbach, No. 13, 33. Grimm, note to No. 21, and Nos. 13, 89, 135, 198. Gubernatis, i, 218; ii, p. 242. Sto. Stefano, No. 13. Hylten-Cavallius, Svenska Folk Sagor, No. 7. Kletke, Märchensaal, i, 167. Legrand, p. 140. Luzel, Legendes, ii, 303. Hahn, No. 28. Magyar Folk-tales, pp. 133, 214, 222. Maspons y Labros, Lo Rondallayre, iii, 114, 149. Melusine, 1877, col. 421. Notes and Queries, 7th Series, ii, 104. Pentamerone, "The Three Citrons." Pedroso, Portuguese Folk-tales, "The Maid and the Negress." Pitré, No. 62. Ralston, p. 184, and No. 32. Revue Celtique, 1870, p. 373, "Chat Noir." Rink, Eskimo Tales, p. 310. Rivière, Contes Kabyles, p. 51. Steere, Swahili Tales, p. 398. Stokes, Indian Fairy Tales, pp. xxiii, xxv, 1, 3, 138, 143, 164, 284, 285. Theal, Kaffir Folk-lore, pp. 136, 158. Thorpe, Yule-tide Stories, pp. 47, 54, 61, 62. Webster, pp. 187, 190. Wenzig, Westslavischer Märchenschatz, p. 45.
(P. 153.) Dead or transformed mother comes to suckle child. Cf. Altd. Blatter, i, 186. Arnason, "The Troll in the Stone-craft," p. 449. Cosquin, i, 232, 234. Danske Viser, i, 206-208. Grimm, Nos. 11, 13. Monseur, Folklore Wallon (1892), 48 ff., "La Belle et la Laide." Ralston, R. F. T., p. 19, "The Dead Mother." Scott, The Minstrelsy of the Scottish Borders, ii, 223. Theal, Kaffir Folk-lore, pp. 60-1. Tylor, Prim. Cult., i, 411. Compare Melusina.
The following extract bears upon the subject:--
U. JAHN, Volkssagen aus Pommern und Rugen. Stettin, 1886. P. 407.
In the time of the French occupation a girl followed her lover, a French soldier, from Mellin to Steitin, and soon afterwards returned to Mellin, and died giving birth to a son. One evening, when the mother of the deceased was sitting by the child's cradle, she noticed that it had become unwontedly heavy, and heard a sound as though the child were sucking. Then she knew that the dead mother had come back to quiet her child. (From Mesow, in the district of Regenwald. Communicated through Professor E. Kuhn.)
(P. 159.) Gregory of Tours (sixth century) gives a story of Fredegonde, the wife of Chilperic, who tries to kill their daughter Rigonthe by shutting a coffer on her head, having pretended to give her treasures out of it. Servants come to her cries, and she is saved. In the Edda, Weyland kills the two sons of Nidad in the same way. In the Icelandic story of "Surtla in Blueland Isles", the stepmother induces the two children to lean over the edge of the chest to see what glitters inside, and then tumbles them into it, and shuts down the lid (Arnason, p. 320).
Compare Gonzenbach, No. 32; Grimm's "Juniper-Tree", No. 47; Hahn's "Schneewittchen", No. 103; Zingerle, No. 12.
(P. 160.) The master cannot cross the stream till he remembers to fulfil the kitchen-maid's wish, in "La Schiavottella" (Pent., 2nd Day, 8th Tale).
The choice of gifts occurs in the following stories: 3, 6, 19, 23, 37, 46 (not from father), 51, 55, 62, 74, 88, 125, 224, 244, 268, 295, 310. See also Asbjornsen, Fjeld, p. 353; Busk, F.-L. R. pp. 46, 57, 63, 115; Comparetti, No. 64; Cosquin, ii, 215; Coelho, No. 29; Gonzenbach, No. 9; Gradi, Saggio, p. 189; Grimm, No. 88, and ii, 378; Gubernatis, Z. M., ii, 381; Pitré, No. 39; Schmidt, No. 10; Schneller, No. 25; Stokes, No.25, pp. 195, 292; Toppen, p. 142; Visentini, No. 24; Webster, p. 167; Zingerle, ii, 391 and in other stories of "Beauty and the Beast" type.
(P. 163.) For "star on brow", cf. D'Aulnoy, "Belle Etoile"; Blade, Contes agenais, p. 149; Cosquin, i, 186 (heroine has gold star on her chest); Crane, pp. 18, 101; Day, Folk-tales of Bengal, pp. 236 ff., 242; Frere, O. D. D., 88 ff., 136, 140, 255; Gonzenbach, No. 5; Grimm, Nos. 9, 96; Gipsy-lore Journal, iii, 83; Melusine, 1877, col. 206, 214; Romero, No. 2; Stokes, pp. 1 ff., 119, "The Boy who had a Moon on his Forehead and a Star on his Chin," 158 ff.; Straparola, No. 3; Webster, pp. 54, 60; Wide-Awake Stories, p. 310. See also Nos. 21, 131, 174, 194, 201 (gold cross), 202, 229, 232, 237, 240, 241, 245, 247, 339, 365 of this collection. (Compare Pedroso, No. xv, "The Maiden with the Rose on her Forehead.")
The Dioscuri had a star or flame shining on their heads and helmets. Figures of Greek divinities show a circle of rays and a nimbus round the head. Apis is represented as a bull, with a star above his head, on the brass coins of Julian the Apostate. On coins of Tyre and Sidon Astarte is figured with a radiated head. A bust on a Saxon Sceatta (unappropriated) appears to have a star on the forehead. On Indo-Grecian coins Mithras has commonly a circular nimbus with pointed rays; in other representations the rays are wanting. Mao (deus Lunus) has a half-moon behind his shoulders; AEsculapius, too, had rays about his head, [Greek name] (Asklepios), Paus., ii, 26, 4. Compare the aureoles of Christ, the Virgin, and Christian saints, and the crowns and diadems of kings. See Grimm, Teut. Myth., 323. A ring of stars was put round the head of Thor (Stephanii not. ad Saxon. Gram., p. 139). According to a story told in the Galien restore, a beam came out of Charles the Great's mouth and illumined his head. Certain Slavic idols, especially Perun, Podaga, and Nemis, have rays about their heads; and a head in Hagenow, fig. 6, 12, is encircled with rays, so is even the rune "R" when it stands for Radegast.
In illustration of a recently-practised custom of adorning the face of a bride with stars, I quote the following from a paper by "Adalet", on "Turkish Marriages, viewed from a Harem", which appeared in Nineteenth Century, July, 1892:--"Till some time ago a very strange addition was made to the Turkish bride's dress--four diamonds chased in gold being stuck on her cheeks, forehead, and chin, by a sort of gum, which held them there for some time. The writer once saw a bride thus dressed, but now the custom has become obsolete, or is confined to the lower classes."
The story on p. 163, like Nos. 1, 2, 5, 8, 21, 60, 89, 90, 118, 119, 237, 239, 240, 241, 245, 247, 300, 301 of this collection, is allied to the type represented in Grimm's "Mother Holle", and Perrault's "Les Fees", in which the heroine is rewarded for industry or kind services, whilst her sister or stepsister is punished for churlishness or greed. Cf. also the following:--American F.-L. Journal, i, 144; Bechstein, pp. 63-66, "Die Goldmaria und die Pechmaria"; Ben'ey, Pant., i, 219; Blade, Contes agenais, p. 149; Callaway, Z. T., p. 219; Chodzko, p. 315; Clouston, Pop. Tales and Fictions, i, 105, 366; Coelho, No. 36; Cosquin, No. 48, and notes; Crane, p. 100 (and for other Italian versions, p. 346); Dasent, 113, 322; Finamore, pp. 65-9, No. xv, "Fiore e Cambedefiore"; F.-L. Journal, , 282ff.; Grimm, Nos. 13, 15, 24, 36, 40, 47, 56, 64, and see i, 369-70; Henderson, Northern Counties, p. 349; Karajich, No. 36; Landes, No. 72; Melusine, i, col. 43; Monseur, Folklore Wallon, p. 48; Nat. Rev., 1857, v. 398, 399 (story of Fo); Prohle, ii, No. 5; Romania, No. 32, p. 564; Sagas from the Far East, p. 151; Schambach und Muller, Niedersachsische Sag. u. Mar., No. ii, pp. 276-8; Sutermeister, pp. 7-10; Theal, Kaffir F.-L., p. 49; Vernaleken, pp. 155-167.
The heroine is generally requited with gold. See note 51.
(P. 171.) In the story of "Sigurdr, the King's Son", the princess gives precious articles to the bride for the privilege of sleeping with the prince, who, on the third night, throws away the sleeping-draught, and hears the princess recount her sorrows and sufferings on his account, and her despairing search for him. (Arnason, Icelandic Legends, p. 278.) The same incidents occur in "The Singing, Soaring Lark" (Grimm, No. 88), in "The Two Kings' Children" (No. 113), in "The Iron Stove'' (No. 127), and in "The Drummer" (No. 193); also in Dasent's "East o' the Sun and West o' the Moon"; in the Athenian folk-tale of "The Man made of Sugar", collected by M. Kampourales, and published in Transactions of the Historical and Ethnological Society of Greece, Athens, 1883 (see Folk-lore Journal, ii, 237); in the Chilian story of "Prince Jalma" (Folk-lore Journal, iii, 293); and in de Gubernatis, S. Stefano, No. 14. A sleeping-draught is given to the prince in the "Story of the Enchanted Youth" (Payne, i, 59); see also Benfey, Pant., i, 255. Compare "L'Oiseau Bleu" of Mme. d'Aulnoy, and see Campbell, iv, 294.
The following story has the bribes and sleeping-draught incidents, as well as the washing task; and has other points of resemblance with Cinderella tales:--
ROBERT CHAMBERS, Popular Rhymes of Scotland. 1870. Pp. 95-99.
"THE BLACK BULL OF NORROWAY."
Heroine rides on back of bull, eats out of its "right lug", drinks out of its "left lug", and sets by her leavings. Bull fights the devil till all is blue. Heroine, overjoyed at bull's victory, inadvertently moves one foot, forgetting injunction not to stir, and the bull in consequence cannot find her again. Heroine comes to foot of glass hill; serves a smith for seven years, so as to get airn shoon. In these she climbs hill, washes the bluidy sarks for washer-wife, who tells the young knight her eldest daughter has washed them, and he must in consequence marry her. Heroine bribes false bride with jewels found in magic fruits, and passes three nights in bridegroom's room. On the third night he pours away the sleeping-draught that the washerwife had given, and hears heroine's song. Washerwife and daughter are burnt.
In "The Red Bull of Norroway", pp. 99- 101, a variant of the above, there is no magic food-supply. After travelling on the bull's back through many dreadful forests, and arriving at a noble castle, heroine draws a pin from bull's hide, transforming him to handsome prince, who disappears suddenly. Heroine sets out in quest of him, suffers many hardships, gets three magic nuts from an old wife, and eventually using them as bribes, as in the foregoing story, she marries the Duke of Norroway, whom she has a second time delivered.
There is a beautiful Cupid and Psyche story about a monkey-faced prince in Fleury's Litterature orale de la Basse-Normandie ( ague et Val-de-Saire), Paris, 1883, pp. 135-50. It may be cited here as a variant of No. 275:--
"LE PAYS DES MARGRIETTES" (Marguerites).
Prince will lose his monkey face fifteen days after his marriage. He is to choose a wife for himself, but will have none of all those who by their manner seem to despise him, and chooses a little peasant girl. She drops some hot grease on him, while admiring his beauty, for at night he has a lovely face and he is doomed to leave her; such is the spell. She sets out in search of him, wanders far, and at length reaches the Castle of the Daisies, where her husband is about to wed the young châtelaine. Heroine changes dresses with a shepherdess, and gets employed at the castle as turnspit. She peels the three chestnuts given her by an old woman she met en route, and they are transformed into golden spinning-wheel, golden distaff, and golden spindle. With these she bribes the châtelaine, and sleeps three nights with prince, her own husband. The first two nights he has sleeping-draught administered by châtelaine's mother; on the third night he throws it away, and recognises his own wife. On the morrow, when all assemble for the wedding of prince and châtelaine, he relates a strange thing that has happened to him, He had lost the key which opened his secretary, had a new one made, then found the original. Which key ought he henceforth to use? All say "the original". Then he will follow their advice; and he shows the turnspit, whom he lost, then found again, and whom he will reinstate, being guided by their counsel.
(Told by Mother Georges, who did not know why the castle is called "des Margriettes" or paquerettes rouges.)
There are points of resemblance also in the following:--
S. CHELCHOWSKI, Powiesci i opowiadania ludowe z okolic Przasnysza (Contes et legendes du peuple des environs de Przasnysz [government of Plock]), Warsaw, 1889. Vol. i, pp. 138-55.
"O KARLINIE" (History of Caroline).
Heroine delivers king's son from the hands of the devil (a very long story). King's son wants to marry her, but queen-mother, by means of charms, destroys his memory, and would marry him to another. Heroine, who is called Caroline, tries to prevent this marriage; she possesses dresses like the moon, the stars, etc., but each time she comes to the castle they give prince a sleeping-draught. Counselled by an old woman, who is a fairy, heroine dons guise of beggar, and writes a letter to Charles, who recognises her, and returns to her.
A sleeping-draught is administered to the heroine by her stepsisters in No. 119, and to the unnatural father in No. 200, when, disguised as a merchant, he comes to murder heroine's children. The bribes and sleeping-draught occur also in No. 191. A sleep-bramble is used in one Icelandic tale; a sleep-thorn in another (Arnason, pp. 411, 441). Odin sticks the thorn in Brunhild's garment only, and throws her into a sleep. "Dorn-roschen" is sent to sleep by the prick of the spindle. There is a "pin of slumber" in Hyde's Beside the Fire, p. 39.
(P. 174.) For the same reason Isota the Black makes Isol take her place in the Icelandic variant, "Tistram, and Isol the Bright" (Arnason, p. 251); such is the case also in Nos. 283, 289, 290, 291. In the remaining stories of this type the bride has various motives for not attending the marriage ceremony: in No. 284 he is afraid to ride a restive horse; in No. 292 the wedding-dress does not fit her; in Nos. 293 and 303 she is in love with someone else; in No. 294 she is shy of her ugliness; in No. 299 the bride is a sorceress, therefore cannot enter a church; and in No. 302 she is ill.
See note 31.
(P. 178.) Miss Busk refers to another stepmother story. Widower has boy and girl: their teacher insists on marrying him. She turns children out; boy is made slave of a witch, and comes at last out of many adventures. Girl gets taken into brigand's cave, and goes through adventures, one of which being that the witch gives her the appearance of death, and shuts her up in a box. Hunting prince finds her and the means of restoring her, and marries her.
The wonder-working cow may find its prototype in Sabala, the heavenly cow of the Ramayana (see Sagas of the Far East, pp. 402-3; Busk, F.-L. R., p. 38).
(P. 186.) In No. 58 (Kolberg) the stepmother inquires of her mirror who is fairest; in No. 155 (Corazzini) she asks the sun. Compare similar incidents in Arnason, p. 403, "The Story of Vilfridr Fairer-than-Vala"; Celtic Mag., xiii, p. 213, "Gold-tree and Silver tree"; Glinski, i, 149; Gonzenbach, ii, 206; Grimm, No. 53, "Little Snow-White", and variants, i, 406; Hahn, No. 103; Maurer, p. 280; Mila, p. 184; Pedroso, Portuguese F. Tales, No. I, "The Vain Queen"; Schneller, No. 23; Schott, No. 5; Wolf, p. 46. See Mr. Nutt's paper on "The Lai of Eliduc and the Märchen of Little Snow-White", Folk-Lore, iii, pp. 26 ff.
In No. 286 heroine's corpse comes into the prince's possession, as in No. 231, and is resuscitated in a similar manner. Compare Miss Busk's story cited in the preceding note [Note 15]. References to the very numerous instances of resuscitations in folk-tales are not added here, as the incident occurs but rarely in stories belonging to the Cinderella group.
(P. 187.) In the following stories a pin stuck in the head causes transformation into a bird: Buchon, La Grece Continentale et la Moree, p. 263; Busk, F.-L. R., Nos. 2, 3; Cosquin, ii, 358; Crane, p. 341; Deulin, ii, 191 ff.; Finamore (Abbruz.), No. 50; F.-L. Journal, iii, 290, "The Black Woman and the Turtle Dove" (Chilian Pop. Tale); vi, 199, "The Three Lemons" (Hungarian tale); Legrand, p. 140 (= Buchon); Luzel, Legendes, ii, 303; Rivière, p. 53; Stokes, No. 2; La Tradition, iii, 12, 366. In an Abyssinian tale (Reinische, Die Nuba Sprache, Vienna, 1879, i, 221), a magician plunges enchanted needles into the heads of seven brothers, transforming them to bulls. When the pin is withdrawn from the bull's hide, in "The Red Bull of Norroway", he becomes a handsome prince.
In No. 17 the old wotnan transforms the heroine into a bird while dressing her hair.
(P. 191.) For incident of "Forbidden Chamber", ci. Arnason, pp. 503, 534; Asbjornsen, i, 86; Busk, F.-L. R., "The Dark King," p. 100; Campbell, i, 265-275, No. 41; Cosquin, i, 133 ff.; Dasent, "The Lassie and her Godmother," p. 189, "The Widow's Son," p. 311 (3rd ed.) F.-L. Rec., iv, 152; F.-L. Journal, ii 193-242 (Hartland in "Forbidden Chamber"); ibid., v, 112-124 (Kirby on "Forbidden Doors of the Thousand and One Nights"); Germania, 1870, No. 6; Grimm, Nos. 3, 6, 46, and see i, 364, ii, 509; Gypsy-lore Journal, i, 26 (Roumanian tale); Hahn, ii, 197, and Nos. 15, 45, 68; Katha-sarit-sagara, iii, 223; Lang, La Mythologie, Paris, 1886; Minaef, Indiiskia Skaski y Legendy, No. 46; Pentamerone, No. 36; Prym and Socin, No. 58; Ralston, 98-100; Roumanian Fairy-Tales, p. 27; Schneller, No. 20; Stokes, No. 24; Tuscan Fairy Tales, No. 7 (tabulated in F.-L. J., ii, 186); Wide-Awake Stories, p. 14; Wolf, Deutsche Hausmärchen, No. 19. "Blue-Beard" and variants. Compare Psyche's curiosity in opening the pyx.
See No. 297 of this collection.
(P. 192.) With the wishing-box in Nos. 34, 224, and 279, compare the wishing-pipe in Nos. 114 and 117, the wishing-dresses in Nos. 110 and 160; the ring in No. 190, the ball in No. 197, the sword in No. 268, the wishing-eggs in No. 309, the wishing-bell in No. 324, the magic whips in No. 326, the talismans in No. 328, and the laurel, which grants every wish, in No. 335. Similar talismans are found in the following stories Am. F.-L. Journal, iii. 270; Busk, F.-L. R., pp. 31, 146-54, 129, 131 (horn), 143 (wand), 152 (ring), 160 ff. (lantern); Campbell, ii, 293, 303; Clouston, i, 314 ff.,"Aladdin's Wonderful Lamp"; Cosquin, i, 121, "La Bourse, le Sifflet, et la Chapeau," and variants; ii, 1-8, "L'Homme de Fer," and variants (candle); ii, 80 (sabre); 284 (violin); 307, "La Baguette Merveilleuse"; Dasent, "Three Princesses of Whiteland" (ring), p 184; "Soria Moria Castle," p. 402; Dozon, No. 11; Folk-lore Rec., iv, 142, Portuguese story (devil's ear); F.-L. Journal, ii, 240, Mod. Gr. story, "The Enchanted Lake" (gold and silver rods); ib., vii, 307 ff., Indo-Burmese story (ring); Gesta Rom., "Prince Jonathas"; Gonzenbach, Nos. 30, 31, 32; Grimm, No. 116, "The Blue Light"; No. 122, "Donkey Cabbages" (cloak); Groome, In Gypsy Tents, p. 201, "Jack and his Golden Snuff-box"; Hahn, variant of No. 9; Kennedy, Fireside Stories, p. 67; Fictions of the Irish Celts, p. 49; Mabinogion, p. 419 (wand); MacInnes, p. 347 (rod); Maspons, Rondallayre, iii, p. 58; Pitré, Nos. 26, 28; Prohle, i, No. 27 (purse, trumpet, hat, and mantle); Ralston, p. 100; Sagas from Far East, pp. 58, 133; Sebillot, Haute Bret., i, Nos. 5, 29; Sparks, The Decisions of Princess Thoodhamma Tsari (Burmese Buddhist Aladdin); Steere, Swahili Tales, p. 393, No. 13 (ring); Stokes, No. 23, "The Princess who loved her Father like Salt" (sun-jewel box containing seven little fairies), and No. 25; Symington, Sketches of Faroe and Iceland, p. 225, "The Goblin's Whistle"; Theal, p. 77, and see p. 45; Vernaleken, pp. 62, 80; Webster, 94-100, 597; Wide-Awake Stories, 190 (box); Wolf p. 16; Zingerle, ii, 142. Compare the tarn-cap, Wish's or Wuotan's hat, Pluto's or Orcus's helmet ([Greek name], Il., 5, 845; Hesiod, Scut., 227); the fairy-purse of Fortunatus, and other wishing-gear. For wishing -purse, -rod, -cloth, etc., see Grimm, Teut. Myth., 871, 976, and see 142 ff. on the personification of Wish. Volund's arm-ring brings wealth (see Rydberg, Teut. Myth., 432). With the magic wand, which occurs in Nos. 1, 20, 21, 22, 27, 47, 55, 74, 89, 91, 96, 103, 106, 107, 108, (109), 120, 122, 124, 137, 146, 165, 184, 185, 208, 209, 230, 232, 233, 238, 250, 252, 253, 265, 269, 281, compare the caduceus of Hermes; the rod of Moses; also rods used in divination (on which see Grimm, T. M., 975, 1598). (Elisha's staff was believed, apparently, to possess miraculous virtue, though it proved inoperative in the hands of his servant. 2 Kings, iv, 29 sq.) There is a story of a wishing-staff which St. Columban gave away to a poor man, and which he smashed at the bidding of his wife (Adamanni Scoti, Vita S. Columbae, cap. 24). The gods have a golden staff with which they touch and transform: [Greek name] (Od., 16. 172, 456; 13. 429). Circe strikes with her staff (Od., 10. 238). Skirni threatens with a magic wand ("Lay of Skirni," C. P. B., i, 111). Shiva has a miraculous bow, so has Indra, according to the Vedas. Apollo's bow carries plague: cf. Odin's spear, Gungnir, the hurling of which brings victory; and Thor's hammer, Miölner, which comes crashing down as a thunderbolt, and of itself returns to the hand. Freyr had a sword of similar nature that swung itself. Such gear the Greeks call [Greek name] (Il., 18. 376). Mr. Grant Allen considers the notion of Thor's hammer to be derived from the shape of the supposed thunderbolt. "Thor's hammer is itself merely the picture which our northern ancestors formed to themselves, by compounding the idea of thunder and lightning with the idea of the polished stone hatchets they dug up among the fields and meadows." These were preserved from motives of superstition, since the possession of a thunderbolt gives one some sort of hold over the thunder-god himself. "This is the secret, too, of all the rings, lamps, gems and boxes, possession of which gives a man power over fairies, spirits, gnomes, and genii. All magic proceeds upon the prime belief that you must possess some thing belonging to the person you wish to control, constrain, or injure" (Essay on "Thunderbolts", by Grant Allen: Falling in Love, and other Essays, pp. 137-158).
(P. 200.) With accusation of queen, compare similar incidents in Arnason, pp. 370, 416, 429; Cosquin, i, 186; Crane, p. 19; Coelho, p. xviii; Fleury, p. 151; Folk-lore Record, i, 116, 207; F.-L. Journal, vi, 38 (Aino tale); Frere, O. D. D., No. 4, pp. 17-22, 54; Gonzenbach, Sic. Mar., i, 19, 148, No. 24; Grimm, No. 31, and i, 364; Gubernatis,i, 412; Hahn, "Sun, Moon, and Morning Star"; Karajich, No. 33; Leskien, No, 46; Magyar Tales, pp. 337, 338; Prohle, i, No. 36; Roman de la Manekine; Satuja ja Tarinoita, i, 105; Schiefner, No. 12; Schneller, No.50; Schott, "Die Goldnen Kinder"; Sêbillot, i, No. 15; Spitta-Bey, No. 11; Stier, "Die verwandelten Kinder"; Ungarische Sagen, "Die beiden jungsten Konigskinder; Stokes, No. 20; Theal, p. 148; 1001 Nights, "The Envious Sisters"; Vernaleken, p. 35, and comp. p. 33; Webster, 177; Zingerle, ii, 124.
Compare the following story, which contains also other incidents common in Cinderella tales:--
Jahrbuch für romanische und englische Literatur. Leipzig, 1860. Vol. vii. "Italienische Märchen", by Hermann Knust. Pp. 382-84. (A Tuscan story from Livorno.)
"DER KONIGSSOHN UND DIE BAUERNTOCHTER."
At his father's wish, a king's son sets out with his attendant to seek a bride. Attendant tries in vain to induce master to notice the pretty women in the town and neighbouring country. At night they come to a wood, and seek shelter from the storm in a peasant's hut. Peasant receives them hospitably, and his wife prepares the table for a meal. King's son inquires for whom the fifth place is laid, and learns that it is for peasant's daughter, who is too shy to appear. Directly he sees her, king's son tells attendant that she shall be his bride. He asks permission to carve the fowl, and gives the father the head, the mother the carcase, and the legs and wings to daughter, whilst he and his attendant eat the flesh.A Next morning he asks for the hand of peasant's daughter, and goes home to his father, who gives him fine carriage in which to fetch his bride. The queen is angry at the marriage with a peasant, and through her intrigues kindles a war with Spain, knowing that king and his son must join in it. On leaving home, king's son charges his wife, in the event of her bearing a child during his absence, to mark it with some sign by which to know it. Flavia bears two children, and marks them as bidden. Soon afterwards queen comes and takes children away, leaving two dogs in their place. When king's son returns, mother tells him his wife has borne those two puppies, whereupon he slays them. But the sword drops from his hand when he would slay his wife also. Queen gives her over to two servants to be killed. But they take pity on her and spare her, as also they have spared her two children whom the queen had delivered into their hands to slay. They take her to the wood, where she wanders about, till she is met by a peasant, who takes her to his house. He has previously found her two children and taken care of them. King's son is inconsolable. Father persuades him to go hunting. Night overtakes him. He enters peasant's house, finds wife and children, and learns the trick that has been played him. Fetching a carriage from the palace, he takes wife and children home. Queen confesses the crime, which her death must atone.
In Dolopathos, 7th Tale, puppies are substituted for queen's children, who are saved by the servants deputed to slay them, and are brought up by a philosopher. Cronus dines on the foal which he was assured his wife had just borne, when in reality the child was Poseidon (see Hesiod, Theog., 497; Pausanias, x, 24).
Compare the myths in which a human ancestress is said to have given birth to an animal of the totem species (see Frazer, Totemism, p. 6). Thus the snake clan among the Moquis of Arizona are descended from a woman who gave birth to snakes (see Bourke, Snake Dance of the Moquis, etc., p. 177). The Bakalai in Western Equatorial Africa believe that their women once gave birth to the totem animals; one woman brought forth a calf, others a crocodile, hippopotamus, monkey, boar, and wild pig (see Du Chaillu, Explorations and Adventures in Equatorial Africa, p. 308; see also p. 309). In Samoa the prawn or cray-fish was the totem of one clan because an infant of the clan had been changed at birth into a number of prawns or cray-fish (see Turner, Samoa, p. 77).
Petitot tells a story of the Dog-Rib Indians of Great Slave Lake, about a woman who was married to a dog and bore six pups, who became the ancestors of the Dog-Rib Indians (Traditions Indiennes du Canada Nord-ouest, p. 311). There is a similar story on Vancouver Island, where a tribe of Indians derives its origin from dogs (see American F.-L. Journal, iv, 14). The legend is found in many other places. On the Pacific coast it extends from Southern Oregon to Southern Alaska; Petitot recorded a somewhat similar tale among the Hare Indians of Great Bear Lake. Among the Eskimo of Greenland and of Hudson Bay is a legend of a woman who married a dog and had ten pups, five of whom she sent inland, where they became the ancestors of a tribe half-dog, half-man; and the other five she sent across the ocean, where they became the ancestors of the Europeans . In Baffin-land, the mother of the dogs is the most important deity of the Eskimo (see Am. F.-L. J., iv, 16). An Eskimo song tells of the origin of the Adlet and of the White men from dogs (ibid., ii, 124); see also Rink, Tales and Traditions of the Eskimo, p. 471; American Naturalist, 1886, p. 594; Petitot, Monographie des Esquimaux Tchiglit, p. 24. (A beaver creates two men, one the ancestor of the Eskimo, the other that of the sea-animals, who were the ancestors of the Europeans.)
For animal children see also Callaway, Z. F. T., p. 105 (crows), and see note; also p. 322 (snake); Cosquin, i, 1, "Jean de l'Ours", and variants, pp. 6 ff.; Crane, p. 324-5; Prym and Socin, ii, p. 258; Schiefner, No. 2; Stokes, No. 10. Compare "The Myrtle" in Pentamerone; also No. 193 of this collection, in which story a woman longs for a child, "even a snake"; Stokes, No. 10; and other stories containing similar reckless wish. In Benfey's Pantschatantra, ii, 144, a Brahman's wife, childless, at last bears a serpent.
In the Prose Edda, Gefjon's sons were oxen; the hag's sons were wolves (see Mallet, North. Ant., 398, 408, and 434). Pasiphae was the mother of the Minotaur. Leda's twins were contained in two eggs. Compare the birth-story of Aed Slane, King of Ireland, son of Diarmaid and Mugain. First a lamb, then a silver-trout were born, finally Aed Slane.
See Mr. Lang's note on "Belief in Kinship with Animals", in his Introd. to Grimm's Household Tales, lxxi; and his Marriage of Cupid and Psyche, lv seq.
A: This incident of the carving
and significant distribution of a fowl is found in Sacchetti's 123rd novel,
which, according to Mr. Clouston, has its origin in a Talmudic story (see
Flowers from a Persian Garden, p. 231); cf. also Comparetti, No.
43, "La Ragazza astuta"; Legrand, Contes pop. Grecs,
No. iv, for variants of the same incident.
(P. 204.) Compare Sigudr and Brynhildr (Siegfried and Brunhilde, Corpus Poet. Boreale, i, 294, 303, 309, 394)--Swipday and Menglad--Hrolfr and Ingigerdr (see Grimm, Deutsche Rechtsalterthumer, Gottingen, 1828, pp. 168-170)--Gormo in Saxo Gramm., lib. ix, p. 179--Txistan and Isolt (see "Sir Tristrem", notes to Scott's ed., 1819, p. 345)--Wolfdietrich--Orendel and Frau Breide (Grimm, Teut. Myth., 374)--Fonzo and Fenizia (Pent., i, 9)--Amicus and Amelius (comp. the story of The Ravens in the O. E. prose version of "The Seven Wise Masters"). For folk-tale parallels cf. Busk, F.-L. R., "How Cajusse was Married," p. 162; Campbell, iii, 228, and No. 347; Dasent, cxxxiv, and p. 389; Grimm, No. 60, "The Two Brothers"; Gonzenbach, No. 40; Gubernatis, i, 330; MacInnes, p. 265. Compare two Cornish Mabinogion, which tell of King Pwyll (The Bardic Museum, Lond., 1802, pp. 17-30); the story of Aladdin, and the story of Prince Sayf el-Muluk, in Payne, vii, 94. See Clouston, Pop. Tales and Fictions, i, 316, note.
(P. 204.) "Sea-monsters (Sjo-skrimsli) cannot be killed by a leaden bullet, for their shell-coat of mail and their demon nature resist any such shot; but he who meets them is lucky if he have a silver button or coin at hand to thrust into his gun; for no monster, however fiendish, can withstand a silver shot." (Introductory Essay to Arnason's Icelandic Tales, p. lx, by Powell and Magnusson.) For drink of oblivion, see note 58.
(P. 208.) This story (No. 32), like Nos. 8, 56, and 111, opens with the "Hop o' my Thumb" incidents, upon which see Mr. Lang's Perrault, p. civ ff. (In No. 308 the heroine, like the seven girls in No. 307, is deserted by her father; but they do not find their way home, as in the other stories.) The trail occurs also in the following: Busk, No. 6; Denton, "The Wicked Stepmother"; Frere, O. D. D., "Surya Bai" and "Raksha's Palace"; Friis, pp. 85, 106; Grimm, No.15, "Hansel und Grethel"; No. 116, "The Blue Light"; Halliwell, Pop. Tales, "Hop o' my Thumb"; Karajich, No. 35; Magyar Folk-tales, p. 145, "The Three Princesses" (= No. 111, Stier); Pedroso, Port. Tales, No. xiv, p. 59; Pentamerone, v, 8, "Nennillo e Nennilla"; Perrault, "Le Petit Poucet"; Roumanian Fairy Tales, p. 81, "Handsome is as Handsome does"; Theal, p. 120.
With the device of thrusting the giantess into the stove, compare Callaway, pp. 16-18, "Uhlakanyana," and p. 20; Campbell, i, 255, 328; Dasent, pp. 128, 220; Grimm, No. 15; Hahn, Nos. 3, 95; ii, pp. 181, 309, note; Haltrich, No. 37; Haupt and Schmaler, ii, 172-4; Magyar Tales, p. 147; Minaef, Conte Kamaon, No. 46; Pedroso, p. 60; Radloff, i, 31; Ralston, pp. 165, 168; Steere, Swahili Tales, p. 380; Theal, p. 99; Wide-Awake Stories, p. 194. In Nos. 56 and 111, it is the giant who is entrapped into the oven.
The "red-hot poker", applied as in the tale, is orthodox treatment for a Cyclops. In No. 56, also, the giant is one-eyed; so is Crinnawn, son of Belore, in Hyde's Beside the Fire, p. 144. The Tartar giant Depeghoz (eye on top of head) has to be supplied daily by the Oghuzes with two men and five hundred sheep. Bissat, the hero, burns out his eye with a red-hot knife. Sindbad, on his third voyage, punches out the eye of a man-eating giant. Comp. the story of Eigill (Nilsson, 4, 33; Muller, Sagenbib., 2, 612). The Laplanders tell of a giant Stalo, who was one-eyed, and went about in a garment of iron (see Grimm, T. M., p. 554).
For one-eyed persons cf. Grimm, Nos. 11, 130; Stokes, pp. 3, 36; Wide-Awake Stories, 12, 295. In folk-tales it is generally a sign of wickedness. Comp. the one-eyed black man, Oppression, whom Peredur fought and slew (Mabinogion, p. 105). Woden pawned one of his eyes to giant Mimi in the Brook of the Weird Sisters for the precious mead, whence it comes that he is one-eyed (see Snorri's Edda, and C. P. B., i, 20 ff.). The Greek myth has a Jupiter with three eyes. Three-eyed persons are common in folk-tales.
See note 40, on the man-eating ogre who smells human flesh.
(P. 210.) The hiding-box and the prince-purchaser incidents recur in Nos. 156, 158, 171, 179, 189, 216, 262, 297. Also in Hahn's No. 19, "Der Hundskopf." In a story from Karajich's Collection (Krauss, Sagen und Mar. der Südslaven, ii, 290, No. 129), the imprisoned hero breaks through the partition at night into the princess's room, and, whilst she sleeps, eats the food and changes the position of the candles. This is parallel with the incident in the Cinderella tales.
(P. 216.) For instances of the external soul in folk-tales, cf. Arnason, 456, 518 (life-egg of the two trolls); Asbjörnsen og Moe, Norske Folkeeventyr, Nos. 36, 70; A. Bastian, Die Völker des ostlichen Asien, iv, 340; Busk, F.-L. R., 164, 168; Campbell, i, 10, 80; Castren, Ethnologische Vorlesungen uber die altaischen Volker, p. 173; Finnish Mythology, p. 186 (story of a giant who kept his soul in a twelve-headed snake, which he carried in a bag as he rode on horseback); Clouston, Pop. Tales and Fictions, i, 347 ff.; A Group of Eastern Romances and Stories, p. 30; Cosquin, i, 173 ff.; Cox, Aryan Myth., ii, 36, 330; Dasent, "The Giant who had no Heart in his Body," p. 55; Tales from the Fjeld, p. 229; Day, Lal Behari, Folk-tales of Bengal, pp. 1, 85, 117, 121, 189, 253; Dietrich, Russian Pop. Tales, p. 23; Dozon, p. 132; Folk-lore Rec., ii, 220 (in skein of silk); F.-L. Journal, ii, 289 ff., "The Philosopsy of Punchkin," by Ed. Clodd; Frere, O. D. D., "Punchkin," p. 12, "Sodewa Bai," "Chundum Rajah," "Truth's Triumph," p. 233; "Wanderings of Vicram Maharajah"; Gonzenbach, No. 16, and ii, 215; Baring Gould, Curious Myths, ii, 299-302 (a Siberian tale about seven robbers whose hearts were hung up on pegs, and are stolen by a captive swan-maiden on which condition her dress is returned to her by the Samsjed who had taken possession of it. He smashes six hearts, and makes the seventh tubber deliver up his old mother's soul, and then kills him also); Gubernatis, Z. M., i, 168; Hahn, i, 187, 217; ii, 23, 204, 215, 260, 275, 282, 294; Haltrich, No. 34, p. 149; Ind. Antiquary (1872), i, 117, 171, and (1885), p. 250; Jamieson, Dict. of the Scottish Language, s. v. "Yule"; Kirby, New Arabian Nights, "Joadar of Cairo and Mahmood of Tunis"; Knowles, Folk-tales of Kashmir, pp. 42, 49, 73, 134, 382; Krauss, i, 168, No. 34; Lane, Arabian Nights, iii, 316, "Seyf-el-Mulook"; Leitner, The Languages and Races of Dardistan, p. 9; Legrand, p. 191; Luzel, i, 445-9; Magyar Folk-tales, pp. 205, 326, 373, 400; Mannhardt, Germanische Mythen, p. 592; Maspero, Contes pop. de l'Egypte ancienne, p. 5 ff., "The Two Brothers" (written down in the reign of Rameses II, circa 1300 B.C.); Mijatovics, i (Denton, p. 172); Müllenhoff, p. 404; Pentamerone, ii, p. 60 (Liebrecht); Radloff, Proben der Volkslitteratur der turkischen Stamme Sud-Sibiriens, i, 345; ii, 237, 531; iv, 88; Ralston, R. F. T., "Koshchei the Deathless," p. 103, and pp. 109, 113, 114; Rivière, Contes Kabyles, p. 191; Schiefner, Heldensagen der Minussinschen Tataren, pp. 108-112, 172-176, 189-193, 360-364, 384, 390, ff.; Sagas from the Far East, p. 130, "Bright Intellect"; Schott, "Ueber die Sage von Geser Chan," Abhandlungen d. Konigl. Akad. D. Wissensch. zu Berlin, 1851, p. 269; Sebillot, Haute Bretagne, p. 63; Spitta-Bey, No. 2, p. 12; Stokes, "Brave Hirálálbásá," "The Demon and the King's Son," pp. 58, 187; Strackerjan, Aberglaube und Sagen, Oldenburg, ii, 306; Sundermann, Allgemeine Missions-Zeitschrift, xi, (1884), p. 453, "Die Insel Nias"; Webster, p. 83; Wide-Awake Stories, pp. 52, 58, 64, 83; Wilken, De Gids, 1888, No. 5, p. 6 (of the separate reprint), "De Simsonsage" (a Malay poem); Wolf No. 20, p. 87; Wratislaw, p. 225.
Compare the story of Meleager and the fire-brand (Apollodorus,
i, 8; Diodorus, iv, 34; Pausanias, x, 31, 4; Aeschylus, Choeph.,
604, ff.); the fatal hair on the head of Nisus (Apollodorus, iii, 15,
8; Aeschylus, Choeph., 612; Pausanias, i, 19, 4). According to
Tzetzes (Schol. on Lycophron, 650), not the life, but the strength
of Nisus was in his hair (compare the Samson story, Judges, xvi, 4-20).
According to Hyginus (Fab. 198), Nisus was destined to reign only
so long as he kept the purple lock on his head. Poseidon made Pterelaus
immortal by giving him a golden hair on his head. His daughter fell in
love with Amphitryon, the enemy of Pterelaus, and killed her father by
pulling out the golden hair (Apollodorus, ii, 4, 5, 7). Sylvia, wife of
Septimius Marcellus, bore a son to the god Mars, who bound up the fate
of the child in a spear (Plutarch, Parallela, 26). See Frazer,
The Golden Bough, ii, 305-308.
The nearest approach to tales similar to these in the Buddhist Birth-stories is in one or two isolated cases, when the Karma of a human being is spoken of as immediately transferred to an animal. (See Mr. Clodd's Myths and Dreams, and Mr. Frazer's Golden Bough, for an exhaustive treatment on the subject of the external soul). Compare the Annamite Stories (Nos. 68, 69, of this collection) in which the life of the heroine is successively transferred to a turtle, a bamboo-shoot, a bird, a tree, etc. There are similar incidents in No. 231. The Zuni Indians of New Mexico, as well as the Moquis, believe in the transmigration of human souls into the bodies of turtles. See "My Adventures in Zuni," by Mr. Cushing, in The Century, May 1883, p. 4 ff.; Schoolcraft, Indian Tribes, iv, 86; Bourke, Snake-Dance of the Moquis of Arizona, pp. 116 ff., 334 ff., and Frazer, op. cit., ii, 99.
Many people believe that a portrait contains the soul of the person portrayed. Thus the Canelos Indians of S. America think their soul is carried away in their picture (Simson, "Notes on the Jivaros and Canelos Indians," Journ. Anthrop. Inst., ix, 392). When Mr. Joseph Thomson tried to photograph some of the Wa-teita in East Africa, they imagined he was trying to get possession of their souls (Thomson, Through Masai Land, p. 86). An Indian refused to let himself be drawn, believing it would cause his death (Maximilian Prinz zu Wied, Reise in das Innere Nord-Amerika, i, 417; see also ii, 166). Some old women in the Greek island of Carpathus were very angry at being drawn, fearing they would in consequence die (Blackwood's Magazine, Feb. 1886, p. 235). Some people in Russia object to having their silhouettes taken lest they die (Ralston, Songs of the Russian People, p. 117). Persons in the West of Scotland refuse to have their likenesses taken (James Napier, Folk-lore; or, Superstitious Beliefs in the W. of Scotland, p. 142; and cf. Andree, Ethnographische Parallelen und Vergleiche, Leipzig, 1889, p. 18 ff.). See Frazer, i, 148-9. Allied to this belief is the practice of pricking the waxen figure of one's enemy.
Compare the story in Schimpf und Ernst, cap. 272 (from the Gesta Romanorum). Sticking needles into a wax figure occurs in Kemble's Chartoe, Pref., lix, lx, and in a story in Müllenhoff, p. 233. Magic figures can also be baked of dough or lime, and wrought out of metal (see Grimm, T. M., 1092). In Pulci's Morgante, 21, 73, a witch's vitality is bound up with a wax figure. When Malagigi melts it at a slow fire, she dwindles away. This kind of conjuring is found in Ovid (Amor., iii, 7, 29). Comp. Horace, Epod., 17, 76. Theocritus, 2, 28, has the wax-melting. In Virgil, Ecl., 8, 74 seq., a magic figure seems to be made of lime and wax.
In evidence of the belief (at least on the part of a hypnotised subject) in the transference of sensibility from the human body to an inanimate object, I may refer to the recent (Oct. 1892) experiments in hypnotism conducted at the Charite hospital by Dr. Luys. He has been able to transfer a woman's sensibility into a tumbler of water, which retains it for a considerable time. If the water is drunk before the sensibility is exhausted the patient (who has not witnessed the occurrence) falls into a deadly swoon. Also, if the water is touched the hypnotised person starts as if in pain. Dr. Luys was also able to confirm the discovery made by Colonel Roche, Administrator of the École Polytechnique, who found that it was possible to transfer the sensibility of a hypnotised person to the negative of a photograph of the subject, who not only felt, but showed signs of, any mark made on the negative. A pin-scratch on the negative--previously charged with sensibility--causes the appearance of a similar mark on the subject, etc., etc. One would like to know the effect upon the subject of throwing the negative into the fire.
(P. 221.) Grimm gives the following variants (i, 364). One from Zwehrn is without the introduction wherein the dying mother promises to help her child, but begins at once with the unhappy life of the stepchild. The end, too, is different. After Cinderella has lived happily with the king for one year, he travels away, leaving her the keys of all the rooms. The false sister persuades her to open the forbidden room, wherein they find a well of blood. Into this the wicked sister throws her after the birth of her son, and takes her place in bed. But the sentries hear the queen's cries, and save her, and the wicked sister is punished.
In a variant from Mecklenburg, Aschenputtel has become queen, and has taken her stepmother, who is a witch, and her wicked stepsister to live with her. When she gives birth to a son they lay a dog beside her, and give the child to a gardener, who is to kill it. They do the same a second time, and the king says nothing. The third time they give the queen and the child to the gardener to be slain; but he takes them into a cave in the forest. The child is reared on hind's milk, and grows up wild, with long hair, and seeks herbs in the forest for his mother. One day he goes to the palace and tells the king about his beautiful mother. King goes to the forest, recognises his wife, and takes her home. On the way they meet two golden-haired boys, whom the gardener has spared and brought up in his own house. Gardener reveals that they are king's children. Witch and her daughter are punished.
In a story from Paderborn, a beautiful countess has a rose in one hand, a snowball in the other, and wishes for a child as red as the rose and as white as the snow. She has her wish. The nurse one day pushes her out of window, and pretends the countess has thrown herself out. She ensnares the count, and he marries her. She bears two daughters, and the red and white stepchild must serve as scullion. She has no clothes, and may not go to church. She weeps on mother's grave, and mother gives her a key to open hollow tree, wherein she murds clothes, soap for washing herself, and a prayer-book. A count sees her, and smears the church threshold with pitch. All ends in the usual way.
A variant from Zittau is given in Busching's Wöchentliche Nachrichten, i, 139. Aschenputtel is a miller's daughter, and is not allowed to go to church. There is nothing new in it, except that, instead of a dove, a dog betrays the false bride and reveals the true.
In Low-German we find Askenpuster, Askenböel, and Askenbuel (Bremer Worterb., i, 29, 30). In Holstein, according to Schutze, Aschenpöselken is derived from pöseln, to seek laboriously (as, for instance, the peas among the ashes). Sudelsödelken, from sölen, sudeln, because it must be destroyed in the dirt. In Pomerania, Aschpuk signifies a dirty kitchen-maid (Dahnert). The Hessian dialect corroborates this (see Estor's Upper-Hessian Dictionary): Aschenpuddel, an insignificant, dirty girl. The High-German is Aschenbrödel. In Swabia we find Aschengrittel, Aschengruttel, Aeschengrusel (Schmid, Schwab. Worterb., 29). In Danish and Swedish it is Askesis, from blowing the ashes. In Jamieson, see Assiepet, Ashypet, Ashiepattle, a neglected child employed in the lowest kitchen-work. In Polish, Kopciuszek, from kopec, soot, smoke.
Oberlin gives a passage from Aschenprödel in which a servant bears this name; and Seller von Keisersberg calls a despised kitchen-boy an Eschengrudel, and says, "how an Eschengrudel has everything to do," Brosamen, folio 79a. Tauler, in the Medulla animae, says, "I, thy stable-boy, and poor Aschenbaltz." Luther, in the Table-talk, i, 16, says, "Cain, the godless reprobate, is one of the powerful ones of earth, but the pious and god-fearing Abel has to be the submissive Aschenbrodel--nay, even his servant, and be oppressed.' In Agricola, No. 515, occurs, "Does there remain anywhere an Aschenbrödel of whom no one has thought?" No. 594, "Jacob, the Aschenbrödel, the spoiled boy." In Eyering, 2, 342, is "poor Aschenwedel". Verelius, in the notes to the Gothreks Saga, p. 70, speaks of the Volks Saga, "huru Askesisen sick Konungsdottren til hustru," which also treats of a youth who was kitchen-boy, and won the king's daughter. The proverbs also, Sitia hema i asku, liggia som kaltur i hreise und liggia vid arnen, apply for the most part to kings' sons, in the Wilkinasage, cap. 91, of Thetleifr, and in the Refssage (cap. 9, of the Gothreks Saga), from which Verelius wishes to derive all the others. We are likewise reminded of Ulrich von Thurheim's Starker Rennewart, who must also have first been a scullion; likewise of Alexius, who lived under the stairs in his father's royal house, like a drudge. Vide Gorres, Meisterlieder, p. 302.
It was a very ancient custom that those who were unhappy should seat themselves amongst the ashes. Odysseus, who, as a stranger entreating help, had spoken with Alkinous, thus seated himself humbly in the ashes on the hearth, and was then brought forth and set in a high place (7. 153, 169; compare 11. 191).
Gudrun, in her misfortunes, has to become an Aschenbrodel; although a queen, she has to clean the hearth, and wipe up the dust with her hair, or else she is beaten.
(P. 223.) In a variant from Paderborn (Grimm, i, 429) the maiden puts the mantle of all kinds of fur--on which moss, or whatever else she can pick up in the forest, is sewn--over the three bright dresses, and escapes into the forest. For fear of wild beasts she climbs up a high tree. Some woodcutters, fetching wood for the king's court, cut down the tree in which Allerleirauh is still sleeping; but it falls slowly and she is not hurt. She wakes in a fright, but they are kind to her, and take her in the wood-cart to the court, where she serves in kitchen. As she has made some very good soup, the king sends for her; he admires her, and makes her comb his hair. One day, whilst she is thus employed, he spies her shining star-dress through the sleeve of her mantle, which he tears off.
In another version, from Paderborn, Allerleirauh pretends to be dumb. The king strikes her with a whip, tearing the fur-mantle, and the gold dress shines through it. The punishment of the father follows in both stories. He himself has to pronounce the sentence that he no longer deserves to be king.
In fourth story, Allerleirauh is driven away by her stepmother because a foreign prince has given a betrothal-ring to her and not to the stepmother's daughter. Afterwards Allerleirauh arrives at the court of her lover, does menial work, and cleans his shoes, but is discovered through ptttting the betrothal-ring among the white bread, as in another saga it is put in the strong broth (Musaus, 2. 188).
When the king will marry no girl whose hair is not like that of the dead queen we are reminded of an incident in the Faröische Saga, where the bereaved king will marry no one whom the dead queen's clothes do not fit.
(P. 224.) Grimm says this story is told on the Rhine of eight sisters, each having one eye more than the other. Two-eyes is the Cinderella, and the wise-woman who takes pity on her sufferings is probably her own departed mother. There is the tree from which gold and silver is shaken, and the wooer whose request can only be granted by the true bride.
(P. 225.) For golden apples, see Campbell, lxxxii ff.; Dasent, pp. 22, 71, 92, 155, 363; F.-L. Rec., ii, 180, "Conn-Eda, or the Golden Apple of Lough Erne"; F.-L. Journal, vi, 252 ff.; Gesta Romanorum, ch. 74 (Swan); Grimm, Nos. 17, 29, 53, 57, 121, 130, 136; Groome, In Gypsy Tents, p. 299 ff.; Gypsy-lore Journal, i, 29; Ralston, pp. 172, 176, 285; Wolf, "The Wonderful Hares"; and compare Nos. 227, 230, 232, 236, 242, 243, 249. The prince throws a golden apple into the heroine's lap in No. 115. Skirni offers eleven all-golden apples to Gerda in the "Lay of Skirni" (Corpus P. Boreale i, 111). Milanion delayed Atalanta with three golden apples.
[SurLaLune Note: Dasent, p. 155 is a mistake, I believe. While "The Blue Belt" contains apples in the story, they are not golden. However, "Tatterhood", p. 345, does contain golden apples. I have consequently linked to "Tatterhood" instead.]
(P. 226.) The pearl is made, in the myth, to spring out of Venus's tear. Eve's tears, like Frigg's tears, are pearls in water, nuggets of gold on land (see Corpus Poet. Boreale, i, cvi). Wäinämoinen's tears are pearls (see Kalewala, Rune 22). So are the tears of the Chinese merman (see F.-L. Journal, vii, 319). According to Sicilian popular tradition, the tears of unbaptised children turn to pearls when poured into the sea by the angel who has collected them (Pitré, F.-L. J., vii, 326).
In a tale from the foot of the Himalayas, published in Russian by Minaef (No. 33), a princess weeps pearls (she also laughs rubies, see note 51). Cf. Cavallius, p. 142; Chodzko, p. 315; Glinski, iii, 97; Karajich, No. 35; Stokes, No. 2.
There are tears of gold in the story of Mardol (see Arnason, p. 437, and Maurer, Mod. Icelandic Pop. Tales) and in the story of the Jealous Sisters (1001 Nights). Cf. Gerle, Volksm. der Bohmen, No. 5; Spitta-Bey, No. 11; Schiefner, No. 12; and see Rydberg, Teut. Myth, p. 564. Not only do Freyja's tears turn into drops of gold (Grimm, Teut. Myth., 1218), but a Greek myth makes [Greek name] arise from the tears of Phaethon's sisters, daughters of the Sun.
(P. 231.) Among Prof. S. Grundtvig's Unpublished Collections are extracts of four vaniants of the foregoing stories. In the first, which is called "Rosenrod", the queen's nose bleeds, the drops falling in the snow. She bears a daughter, who is named Rosenröd Snehvid (Rose-red Snow-white), who is shut up in a tower with her attendants for seven years. Only the princess lives to come out with her little dog, and she becomes a servant in new king's castle. She takes bride's place at wedding--the horse Buckbar--the mouse-skins--the wedding ring--the mysterious words, etc. The remaining three variants differ in no respect from those already given.
The following legend is from J. M. Thiele's Danmark's Folkesagn (1843), i, p. 8:--
"THE TOMB OF THE THREE MAIDENS."
A king in the Danish island of Fyen has three fair daughters engaged to three princes, who are absent taking part in the war. Three giants present themselves and woo the princesses, offering gold, silver, and costly rings. The princesses are faithful to their lovers, and the giants go away in a rage, threatening to return soon. King has a large mound with a chamber inside it made for his daughters, and the place is covered over with trees and shrubs. The giants return, slay the king, and at length discover the hiding-place of the princesses, through the barking of their little dog. When they find that the giants are digging them out, first the youngest and then the other two princesses stab themselves to death. To this day the hill is shown. The giants are still said to pass over it with noise and fury; horns are sounded, and the barking of the dog is heard from within the mound.
Cf. Saxo. Grammaticus, lib. vii, for the history of Sigvald or Sivald. Regnold conceals his daughter Gyritha in an underground chamber, whence she is dug out by Gunnerus.
(P. 235.) Frequently the knowledge of birds' language comes of eating a white snake, as in Grimm's No. 17; Wratislaw, Sixty (Slavonic) Folk-tales, p. 25. Sigfred, in the Old Play of the Wolsungs (Corpus Poet. Boreale, i, 39), like Sigurd in the Western Wolsung-Lay (C. P. B., i, 157) understands the birds' talk when he has tasted the heart of the dragon Fafni. In the saga of the Seeburg (Deut. Sag., No. 131) the serving-man tastes a piece of a silver-white snake, and immediately knows what the fowls, ducks, geese, doves, and sparrows in the yard are saying of the speedy downfall of the castle. There are various similar legends of submerged castles. For other examples of the wisdom-giving fish, or snake, cf. Campbell, ii, 361, 363, and see 366, No. 47 (white snake); iii, 331, No. 82 (Fionn), and see p. 297; Chambers, Tales of Sir James Ramsay; Chodzko, Contes des Paysans . . . . Slaves, "Dieva Zlato Vlaska"; Cox, Aryan Myth., i, 81; Darles, Mythol. Celtique; Folk-lore Journal, vi, 299 ff. (white snake); Baring Gould, Cur. Myths (1871), 260; Kennedy, Legendary Fictions, p. 216, "Farquhar the Physician"; Mabinogion, (Guest), ed. 1877, pp. 471 ff.; Myvyrian Archaiol. of Wales; Rasmann, Deutsche Heldensage, i, 124; Sebillot, H. Bretagne, ii, 224, 326-7; Vuk Stevanovich, Serbische Märchen, No. 3; La Tradition, 1889, No. ii, 33-40; Volsunga-Saga (Camelot Series), pp. 64, 92.
Pliny says (29, 4), "quin et inesse serpenti remedia multa creduntur ..ut possint avium sermones intelligi." Kassandra the prophetess had been licked by a serpent. (See Tzetzes' Argument to Lycophron's Alexandra; also Eustathius, the Homeric scholiast's remarks about Helenus, brother of Kassandra, ad Iliad, vii, 44). Compare the Melampus myth (Apollodorus, i, 9; see also iii, 6, for the story of Teiresias, in which serpents figure. Pliny, x, 137, throws doubt on the story of Melampus). Michael Scott obtained his wisdom by serpents' bree (brigh); cf. Inferno, canto xx; Scott's Lay of Last Minstrel, canto ii, and notes in Appendix. So in Pliny (Nat. Hist., 1. x, cap. 49), "quarum confuso sanguine serpens gignatur, quem quisque ederit, intellecturus sit alitum colloquid." According to a Scotch saga, the middle piece of a white snake, roasted by the fire, gives a knowledge of supernatural things to anyone who shall put his finger into the fat which drops from it. (See Grant Stewart, pp. 82, 83.) In Iceland, one sufficiently safe way of acquiring a knowledge of the language of birds is recorded (Arnason, cxvi): "Take the tongue of a hawk, and put it in honey for two days and three nights; place it then under your own tongue, and you will understand the language of birds. It must not, however, be carried elsewhere than under the tongue, for the hawk is a poisonous bird."
In other cases the knowledge of birds' talk is acquired by means of a herb. Thus, in the poem of Elegast there occurs a nameless herb, which one need only put in the mouth to understand what the cocks crow and the dogs bark. Villemarqui says, whoever accidentally steps on the golden herb (possibly the mistletoe) falls asleep directly, and understands the speech of dogs, wolves, and birds (see Grimm, T. M., pp. 1207, 1682). A wort, that the mermaid dug on the mount that might not be touched, makes whoever eats it underatand the wild beasts, fowl, and fish (Haupt, Zeitschrift, 5, 8, 9). In Ralston's Songs of the Russian People, p. 99, a fern enables one to understand secret things. Mr. Frazer says "On Midsummer Eve the fern is believed to burst into a wondrous bloom. . . . Whoever catches this bloom . . . . can make himself invisible, can understand the language of animals, and so forth" (Golden Bough, ii, 286-7). He gives the following references:-- Wutke, Der deutsche Volksaberglaube, § 123; Grohmann, Aberglauben und Gebrauche aus Bohmen und Mahren, §§ 673-677; Gubernatis, Mythol. des Plantes, ii, 144 sq.; Friend, Flowers and Flower-lore, p. 362; Brand, Pop. Ant., i, 314; Vonbun, Beiträge zur deutschen Mythologie, p. 133 sq.; Burne and Jackson, Shropshire Folk-lore, p. 242; cp. Arch. Rev., i, 164 sq.
In the story of "The Three Languages" (Grimm, No. 33) the lad was three years learning what the dogs bark, what the birds say, and what the frogs croak. Kin-the-young, in the Lay of Righ, learnt the language of birds (Corpus P. Boreale, i, 242). Compare No. 10 and the following:--Boner, Transylvania, p. 372; Day, Folk-tales of Bengal, 150, 152; Denton, Serbian Folk-lore, "The Snake's Gift"; Fleury, Litt. orale Basse-Normandie, p. 123; Grimm, Household Tales, ii, 541 ff.; Gubernatis Z. M., i, 152; Hahn, No. 37; Ind. Ant., iii, 250; Leger, Contes slaves, No. 11, p. 235; Magyar Folk-tales, p. 301, and notes, p. 421; Naaki, Slavonic Tales, "The Language of Animals"; Payne, Arabian Nights, I, 14; Prohle, Kindermärchen, No. 7; Deutsche Sagen, i, 131; Sagas from the Far East, p. 21; Satuja ja Tarinoita, iii, p. 37; Schreck, Nos. 3, 6; Straparola, 12th Night, fable 3; Tales of the Alhambra, "Legend of Prince Ahmed al Kamel"; Tylor, Prim. Cult., i, 190, 469; Webster, p. 136; Wright, The Seven Sages, p. 106, "The Ravens"; etc. And see Philostr., Vit. Ap., i, 20 fin. Arabian and Persian traditions represent Solomon as acquainted with the language of beasts and birds.
In an Icelandic tale a bird understands and speaks the tongue of men (Arnason, 430).
See note on Talking Birds.
(P. 238.) For "obstacles" created to hinder pursuit, see also Nos. 118, 119, and cf. Am. F.-L. Journal, i, 54; iv, 19 (a Samoyede tale; see Castrèn, Ethnologische Vorlesungen, p. 65); Arnason, Icelandic Legends, p. 521; Asbjörnsen and Moe, i, p. 86, No. 14; Asiatic Researches, xx (1836), p. 347; Athanas'ev, i, No. 3b; Braga, No. 6; Brockhaus, Berichte, 1861, pp. 225-9; Busk, "Filagranata," No. i, p. 8; Callaway, Zulu Tales, pp. 51, 53, 64, 90, 145, 228; Campbell, i, lxxvii-lxxxi, xc; i, 33, No. 2, "Battle of the Birds"; Carleton, Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry; Cosquin, i, 133 ff.; Crane, p. 29, "The Fair Angiola" (= Gonzenbach, No. 53), and see p. 335, note; Dasent, p. 71, "The Mastermaid"; p. 285, "The Widow's Son"; p. 311, "Father Weathersky"; Erdelyi-Stier, No. 4; F.-L. Journal, i, 235 (Malagasy), 286 (Ananci), 323 (Irish tale, "Grey Norris"); ii, 15 (Polish), 31 (Malagasy); Frere, O. D. D., "Truth's Triumph", 50, 63; Friis, pp. 49, 58; Geldart, Mod. Greek Tales, "Starbright and Birdie", "The Golden Casket", 'The Scab Pate"; Germania, 1870, No. 6 (Lapp tale); Gonzenbach, Nos. 53, 64; Gottingische Gelehrte Anzeigen, 1862, p. 1228 (Finnish tale); Grimm, No. 79, "The Water-Nix"; Gubernatis, Z. M., i, 166, 175; ii, 60; Hahn, No. 1 and No. 45; Haltrich, No. 37; Imbriani, Nov. fior., pp. 12, 415; Katha Sarit Sagara, bk. vii, ch. 39; Kennedy, Fireside Stories, p. 61; Kohler, Orient and Occident, ii, 103, 107, 112, 114; Lang, Custom and Myth, pp. 88 ff., and Rev. Celt., t. iii, "Nicht Nought Nothing"; Legends of the Wigwam, p. 61, "Exploits of Grasshopper"; Leipzig Academy, 1861, bk. vii, p. 203 et seq (Sanskrit tale of Somadeva); Leskien, No. 9; Lewin (Capt.), Exercises, etc., and Popular Tales (Calcutta, 1874), p. 85; MacInnes, pp. 1 ff., 437; Magyar Folk-tales, pp. 157 ff.; Maspons, La Rondallayre, i, 41-46; Mélusine, ii, col. 214 (Samoa), 408; Memoires d l'Académie de Vienne, vol. xxiii (1874), p. 327; Naaké, Slavonic Tales, "The Wonderful Hair" and "Ivan Kruchina"; Pedroso, Port. F. Tales, "St. Peter's God-daughter"; Pentamerone, "Petrosinella", "The Flea"; Pitré, variant of No. 13 (tabulated Folk-Lore, i, 141); Radloff, iii, p. 383 (Siberian); Ralston, "The Baba Yaga", "Vasilissa the Wise, and the Water King", "The King Bear", pp. 95, 132, 140, 143, 174; Record of the Past, vol. ii, p. 142, "Tale of the Two Brothers"; Romero, Nos. 8, 38; Rink, Eskimo Tales, No. 8, "Two Girls"; Satuia ja Tarinoita, i, 142, 151; Schneller, No. 20; Theal, No. v, "Sikulume," pp. 82, 87; Thorpe, Yule-Tide Stories, pp. 223, 295, 296; Toppen, Aberglauben aus Masuren, p. 146; Trans. Asiat. Soc. of Japan, vol. x, p. 36; Vernaleken, pp. 50, 157; Webster, pp. 113-14, 120, 126.
Compare the Jason myth. To detain Aetes, Medea throws behind thc mangled remains of her own brother Apsyrtos.
In Turner's Samoa (p. 71) we read: "Members of the seaweed clan in Samoa, when they went to fight at sea, took with them some seaweed, which they threw into the sea to hinder the flight of the enemy; if the enemy tried to pick it up it sank, but rose again when any of the Seaweed clan paddled up to it. See also p. 102, ibid.
In the "Lay of Rolf Kraki" (Corpus Poet. Bor., i, 190), Rolf, escaping from Eadgils (Adils), casts gold behind him to delay his pursuers. This is a very common device with Cinderella. Grimm quotes a Swiss superstition anent witches. A man, wishing to escape from their clutches, must provide himself with something to tempt their cupidity, and must throw it out bit by bit as he runs. The witches will stop to pick it up (T. M., 1079).
For hair-combing, see Campbell, i, 61; iv, 283; Dasent, pp. 302, 385, 404; Folk-lore Journal, iii, 293, "Prince Jalma" (Chilian tale); Grimm, i, 356, 369 ff., 430; etc.; and see Nos. 239, 240, 241. It is a favourite incident in numerous Lapp Stories.
(P. 244.) Girls eat their mother in Nos. 50, 53, 124; girls eat their sisters in Nos. 17, 278. For other examples of cannibalism in folk-tales, see American F.-L. Journal, ii, 54, "Legends of the Cherokees"; Asbjornsen og Moe, Nos. 1, 52; Athanas'ev, i, 121; Callaway, Z. F. T., notes, p. 158 et seq. Campbell, iii, 297; Dasent, pp. 71, 128, 220; Day, Folk-tales of Bengal, pp. 72, 79, 120, 272; F.-L. Rec., v, 136; Frere, O. D. D., pp. 28, 198; Grimm, No. 15; Hahn, Nos. 1, 3, 65, 95; ii, 181, 283-4, 309; Haltrich, Deutsche Volksmar. aus dem Sachsenlande, etc., No. 37; Haupt und Schmaler, ii, 172-4; Ind. Ant., i, 171; iv, 56; Karajich, No. 35, pp. 174-5; Kathasarit-sagara (Tawney), i, 162, 163; Lang, Perrault, cvii; Magyar Folk-tales, p. 147, and see note, p. 388; Payne, Arabian Nights, vi, 112, "History of Gherib and his brother Agib"; Radloff, i, 31; Ralston, R. F. T., pp. 140, 154, 165, 168, 169, 171, 179, 182; Songs of the Russian People, p. 169; Rink, Eskimo Tales, p. 128, "The Brothers visit their Sister"; Rivière, Contes pop. Kabyles, pp. 210, 216, 228, 240; Scottish Celtic Review, i, 70-77, "How the great Tuarisgeul was put to death"; Stokes, Ind. F.-Tales, pp. 5, 51, 99, 175; Theal, Kaffir F.-lore, pp. 81, 108, 119, 122, 134, 136 ff., 164; Wide-Awake Stories, pp. 101, 171, 267. Compare Horace, A. P., 338-340. And see Nos. 312, 313, and note 40.
The heroine is accused of eating her father in No. 307 of this collection. A queen is accused of cannibalism in Arnason, p. 413, and a mother of devouring her child in the Mabinogion, p. 353. A brother wants to drink his sister's blood in Gonzenbach, No. 7; and a king his son's blood in Hahn, No. 45.
(P. 246.) With the enigmatical question which the father puts to the bishop, compare a similar question in Gonzenbach, No. 25, vol. i, p. 154.
(P. 249.) Compare "The Palace that stood on Golden Pillars", Thorpe, Yule-Tide Stories, p. 64. (From Westmanland.)
(P. 250.) Treasure-rocks open in Nos. 97, 102, 103, 105, 106, 107, 108, 194, 252, 253, 304 (stone-cross opens); usually when struck with a rod. (In No. 257 the heroine keeps her dresses in a rock cavern.) Compare the rock-opening in Hiawatha, also in the following: Bleek, Hottentot Fables, p. 64; Callaway, p. 140, "The Rock of Two Holes"; Folk-lore Journal, i, 274 sq. (Malagasy folk-tale); Grey, Polyn. Myth., p. 188; Ogilby, Africa, p. 73; Theal, Kaffir F.-L., p. 36, "The Bird who made Milk"; Thorpe, Yule-Tide Stories, p. 482; Vernaleken, pp. 99 and 112 (by flower). 118 (rod); and see Kuhn in Wolf, Zeitschrift fur deutsche Myth., (1855), iii, 385, and Schwartz, Ursprung der Mythol., p. 177 ff. Compare the divining-rod which discovers metals and buried treasure.
In German legend, a shepherd driving his flock over the Ilsenstein stopped to rest, leaning on his staff. The mountain suddenly opened, for there was springwort in his staff, and the Princess Ilse stood before him, and bade him enter and take as much gold as he pleased. On leaving, he forgot his staff; and, in consequence, the rock suddenly closed, and cut him in two (see Kelly, Indo-European Folk-lore, p. 177). Here the magic properties of the rod are due to the enclosed springwort. According to Pliny (10, 18), the springwort is obtained by stopping up the hole in a tree where the woodpecker keeps its young. The bird fetches springwort, and applies it to the plug, causing it to shoot out with a loud explosion. The same account is given in German folk-lore. Elsewhere, as in Iceland, Normandy, and Ancient Greece, the bird is an eagle, a swallow, an ostrich, or a hoopoe (see Fiske, Myths and Myth-Makers, p. 44). The forget-me-not, also, is a luck-flower, and derives its name from a legend about rock-opening (see Grimm, T. M., 1597). The mere name of the plant, sesame, is sufficient to open the cavern in the "Forty Thieves". Compare the saxifraga of the ancient Romans. The schamir had the power of cleaving rocks. According to some legends it was a worm, and was used by Solomon in building the Temple without sound of iron tool; another account says it was a mystic stone which enabled Solomon to penetrate the earth in search of mineral wealth (see Baring-Gould, Leg. of the Patriarchs and Prophets, pp. 337, 338, and see Gesta Rom., Swan's, ed. Wright, vol. i, lxiv, and cii).
(P. 251.) With the opening of the story compare Denton, "The Dream of the King's Son"; De Gubernatis, Z. M., i, 139 (South Siberian tale cited from Radloff); Hahn, No. 45, i, 258; ii, 247; Krauss, ii, 290, No. 129; Roméro, No. 3, p. 12; Schott, Walachische Märchen, No. 9; and "The Three Dreams," in Magyar Folk-tales, p. 117; and see the notes, p. 376, for other stories of dreams foretelling wealth and power. Compare Joseph's dream. The significance of dreams is noticed in Uarda, cap. xv; Horace, c. iii, xxvii, 41; S., i, x, 33. See also Tylor, Early Hist. of Mankind, pp. 5-10; Prim. Cult., "Dreams."
(P. 251.) For detecting the smell of human flesh, cf. Arnason, p. 454; Bleek, Hottentot Fables, p. 60; Busk, p. 6; Callaway, p. 49, "Uzembeni"; Campbell, i, 9, 252; Du Chaillu, Ashango Land, p. 107, "Legend of Fougainon"; Clouston, i, 134, note; Cosquin, i, 103; Crane, pp. 90, 340; Dasent, pp. 59, 146, and "Rich Peter the Pedlar," p. 209; Day, Lal Behari, Folk-tales of Bengal, pp. 73, 77; F.-L. Rec., iii, 45 (from Mentone); 210 (Danish tale,Grundtvig); iv, 147 and 159 (Portuguese, Coelho); F.-L. Journal, ii, 68, "Mally-Whuppy"; iii, 296 and 300 (Chilian); vi, 129, "The Three Lemons" (Hungarian); Grey, Polyn. Myth., pp. 34, 64; Grimm, Nos. 15, 29, 165; Lewin, Exercises, etc., and Popular Tales (Calcutta, 1874), p. 85; MacInnes, Folk and Hero Tales, p. 113; Magyar Folk-tales, pp. 55, 241, and see p. 340; Pedroso, pp. 105, 109; Perrault, "Le Petit Poucet"; Petitot, Trad. Ind. du Canada Nord-Ouest, Paris, 1886, p. 171; Ralston, pp. 100, 154; Theal, pp. 124, 138; Thorpe, Yule-Tide Stories, "Rich Peter the Huckster," p. 322, and p. 339; Vernaleken, pp. 38, 141, 351; Webster, pp. 17, 97; Wide-Awake Stories, pp. 58, 172.
The Eumenides smelt out Orestes. "[Greek title]" Eum., 244 (see Lang, Perrault, cvii).
Sigmund and his cousin, wandering in the snow upon the Dofrafells, weary and wayless, come to a homestead wherein the womenfolk hide them from the goodman. When the rough-tempered man enters, he casts up his nostrils, and asks who has come. (C. P. B., i, 511.)
Hidimbas, the rakshasa in the Mahabharata, smells man's flesh from afar, and orders Hidimba, his sister, to fetch it him; but she, like the ogre's or monster's wife in so many tales, befriends the slumbering hero. Thor and Tew come into giant Hymi's house, where they find his 900-headed grandmother, who hides them under the caldron. So the devil's grandmother protects the luck-child (in Grimm's No. 29) when the devil enters and smells human flesh.
The uorco of the story derives his name from the ancient god of the lower world; he is an Orcus esuriens. Compare Ariosto's description of the orco and his wife (Orlando Fur., xvii, 29-65); he is blind (does not get blinded), has a flock like Polyphemus, eats men, but not women. (For the orco, see Pent,, i, 1; i, 5; ii, 3; iii, 10; iv, 8. For the orco, ii, 1; ii, 7; iv, 6; v, 4.) Ogres, or men-eating monsters, occur in Nos. 312, 313, 316; see also note 23.
(P. 256.) Compare No. 281, in which also the stepmother tears out the heroine's eyes. The same incident is met with in Bibl. de las Trad. pop. Espanolas, i, 137; Comparetti, No. 25; Cosquin, ii, 42, "Marie de la Chaume du Bois"; Gubernatis, Sto. Stefano, No. 13; Zool. Myth., i, 218; Hahn, No. 28; Maspons y Labros, Lo Rondallayre, iii, 114; Pitré, Fiabe Nov. e race. pop. Sic., No. 62; Nuovo Saggio, No. 6; Rivière, p. 51; Wenzig, p. 45.
The heroine is hidden under a tub, or trough, and the false bride presented, in Nos. 21, 54, 88, 127, 239, 241, 249; in Nos. 7, 24, 34, 229, 236, 237, 240, the stepmother puts her in a tub with the intention of boiling her; but such fate befalls her own daughter instead. Compare the following:--S .African F.-L. Journal, I, vi, 138; Coelho, No. 36; Comparetti, No. 31; Cosquin, i, 255, "La Laide et la Belle"; Dasent, p. 125, "Buttercup"; F.-L. Journal, iii, 296; vi, 199; Grimm, No. 9; Nerucci, No. 5. Thor and Tew are hidden under the cauldron in the hall of the giant Hymi ("Hymis-Kvida," Corpus P. Bor., i, 225).
(P. 259) In Nos. 239 and 241 also the heroine chooses the worst gifts and gets the best, while her stepsister grasps at the best and is given the worthless. This episode is very general in stories allied to the "Frau Holle" type (see Grimm's No. 24, and variants, i, 369-372). Compare the two versions of "Goldhähnchen und Pechhahnchen" (Schambach und Muller, Niedersächsische Sag. u. Mar., No. ii, A and B, pp. 276-8). In the first, the heroine who goes down the well to recover her bunch of flax, and there picks the fruit from the apple-tree, takes the bread from the oven, and milks the cow, is asked by the people in the little house she enters whether she will eat with them or with the dogs and cats, and afterwards, whether she will leave by the gold door or the pitch door. She answers modestly, and is rewarded with gold. The envious stepsister who declines to oblige, and who chooses the best of everything, gets covered with pitch. The cock announces the return of each girl in the usual manner. In the second version, the stepsister, who is very beautiful, sits idly at home, while the heroine, who is very ugly, does all the menial work. One frosty night, when she goes to the well to wash clothes, a water nymph throws a stone in her face and splashes her with water. She is now more beautiful than her stepsister, and the stone is a great jewel. The envious stepsister goes to the well, has the stone thrown at her and the water sprinkled over her, and returns home, to find that she has donkey's ears and that her face is covered with hair. Instead of a jewel she has only a big flint. Heroine makes a wealthy marriage, and stepsister is taken about by her mother to be exhibited. In this way she at length comes before heroine, who makes her beautiful again, and provides for her and her mother. In the Swiss story, "Goldig Betheli und Harzebabi" (Sutermeister, Kinder. und Hausmar. aus der Schweiz, pp. 7-13), Betheli goes down a mouse-hole after the ring of her spinning-wheel, and comes to beautiful castle where dear little dogs talk like people. They greet her as "Gold Betheli". Some beautiful children ask whether she will eat with them or with the dogs, and give her choice of a wooden or a gold dress. When she leaves they load her with gifts, and give her a golden spinning-wheel ring. Stepsister goes down mouse-hole, is greeted as "Pitch Babi", chooses gold dress, and gets the wooden one, and has to eat dog's food. When she leaves, her wooden dress is covered with pitch and resin, and she has only an old wooden spinning-wheel ring. The following story, "Die Goldmaria und die Pechmaria," is similar (Bechstein, Deutsches Marchenbuch, pp. 63-6):--A widow has a vain and spoilt daughter of her own, and a good-natured, uncomplaining stepdaughter; both called Maria. She ill-treats the latter, makes her do all the menial work, and finally bakes her a cake of ashes and milk, gives her a pitcher of water, and casts her forth. The heroine sits down on the grass to appease her hunger; birds take the crumbs from her band; the ash-cake has turned into a tart, and the water into costly wine. Presently she comes to a large house with two doors; one, black as pitch, the other bright as gold. She knocks at the pitch door, asks the dreadful-looking man who opens it for a night's lodging and is terribly frightened when she follows him into a room full of howling cats and dogs. It must be none other than the Thurschemann, as he is called. She elects to sleep with the dogs and cats, but must share his soft, white bed. In the morning she chooses to breakfast with the dogs and cats, but is made to take coffee and cream with him; she says she will leave by the pitch door but is directed to the golden, and gets covered all over with gold as she passes through. She goes to her old home, and the hens come to greet her, whilst the cock cries, "Kikiriki, here comes Goldmaria." Her stepmother bows down to her, and heroine makes herself known. She is more kindly treated than formerly, and is soon well married. The envious stepsister, seeking the same reward, refuses to share her sweet cake with the birds, and it turns to ashes and water. She enters by the gold door; elects to sleep with the Thurschemann, and is taken to the cats and dogs, who scratch and bite her; chooses to breakfast with him, but must eat with the animals; wants to leave by the gold door, but is led to the pitch door, above which sits the man shaking pitch over her. Reaching home, she is met by the cock, who cries, "Kikiriki, here comes Pitchmaria," and her mother turns from her in horror. See note 12.
Compare the Servian story (Karajich, No. 36), in which the heroine chooses the lightest casket, and finds it full of ducats; the stepsister chooses the heaviest, containing two serpents, which tear out her eyes and her mother's. There are similar incidents in the following:-- Day, Folk-tales of Bengal, No. 22; Journal of the Asiatic Soc. of Bengal, vol. 34 (1865), pt. 2, p. 228; Kennedy, Fireside Stories, p. 33; Mitford, Tales of Old Japan, p. 249.
The high tower counsels Psyche not to sit on the soft seat, or to partake of the sumptuous fare that Persephone will offer her, but to sit on the ground, and ask for a piece of coarse bread. So the hero in the Swedish tale (Cavallius, No. 14 B) refrains from sitting on the various chairs, and avoids eating anything offered him by the witch. (Comp. Cosquin's "Chatte Blanche", ii, 9 ff.; Katha Sarit Sagara, i, 355, Tawney.)
(P. 274.) In the following stories the woman's reflection in the water reveals her presence in the tree overhead:--Busk, No. 2, "The Three Love Oranges"; also pp. 17, 23, and note, p. 25; Campbell, "The Battle of the Birds"; Dasent, "The Lassie and her Godmother," p. 191; Folk-lore Journal, i, 236 (Malagasy tale); 323 (Irish), "Grey Norris"; ii, 135 (Malagasy); 251 (tabn. of Chilian tale); iii, 290 (Chilian), "The Black Woman and the Turtle Dove"; vi, 199 (Hungarian), "The Three Lemons"; Lang, Custom and Myth, p. 91, "Nicht Nought Nothing."
(P. 280.) So in No. 8 the stepmother is made to pronounce her own sentence, and the false wife in No. 243. Compare Cosquin, i, 212; Dasent, p. 59; Gonzenbach, Nos. 11, 13; Grimm, Nos. 13, 89, 135; and i, p. 430 (see note 27); The Seven Wise Masters, "The Ravens"; Simrock, App. No. ; Zingerle, ii, 131, etc.
(P. 292.) In this story (No. 63), as in No. 40, there is an element of "Rumpelstiltskin"; the heroine has promised her children in return for aid; but the mention of his name causes the destruction of the being to whom she is under obligation. So in the hero-tales, Nos. 320, 334, the helpful ox loses all power when the boy calls him by name. Sigfred hides his name from Fafni (C. P. B., i, 35). See Mr. Clodd's paper on "The Philosophy of Rumpelstiltskin" (F.-L. Journal, vii, 135 ff.), and add the following to the list of variants there cited:--Chodzko, Contes des Paysans et des Patres Slaves, pp. 341-47, "Kinkach Martinko"; Longman's Magazine, July 1889, p. 331, "Peerifool"; Zingerle, Kind. u. Hausm. aus Süd-Deutschland, pp. 278-80, "Kugerl"; Tirols Kind. u. Hausm., pp. 225-32, "Purzinigele."
[SurLaLune Note: Edward Clodd later published Tom Tit Tot: An Essay on Savage Philosophy in Folk-Tale (1898) which expands on his paper "The Philosophy of Rumpelstiltskin" mentioned in this note.]
(P. 295.) In the 13th century Lai d'Yvenec, by Marie de France, the lover, in the form of a bird, visits his beloved in the tower, and is cut by knives which have stealthily been placed there. She follows the track of the blood. Mad. d'Aulnoy's "L'Oiseau bleu" is connected with this lay.
(P. 229.) The incident in the Annamite story of the crow carrying the shoe to the prince's palace, and of his search for the owner, has its prototype in the account given by Strabo (xvii, p. 808, Casaubon) of the myth of Rhodope. The passage, literally rendered, is as follows:-- " . Others call her Rhodope, and fable that, while she was bathing, an eagle snatched one of her sandals from her handmaid, and took it to Memphis, where he dropped it in the lap of the king as he was administering justice . Struck with the neatness of the sandal and the strangeness of the occurrence, the king sent round the country in quest of the wearer of the sandal. She was found in thc city of Naucratis, and being taken to the capital, became the king's wife." AElian's version of the story is precisely similar, except that he names the king Psammitichos, who "proclaimed that search should be made throughout Egypt for the owner of the sandal; whom, when he had discovered, he took to wife." (Var. Hist., xiii, 33.)
Somewhat analogous to this is the incident in the story of the Two Brothers (Maspero, Contes pop. de l'Egypte ancienne, pp. 5 ff.). The gods made a very beautiful woman to be Bitiu's wife. One day a perfumed lock of her hair fell into the river, floated down to the land of Egypt, and was taken by the chief washerman to Pharaoh, who, informed by his magicians that the hair belonged to a daughter of the Sun, sent messengers forth to all foreign lands to seek her. In the Tamil romance, "Madana Kámarája Kadai," translated by Natesa Sástri (see Clouston, Pop. Tales and Fictions, i, 377), is a story about a princess from whose head, after her bathing, there fell a hair ten bhágams long (a bhaga is equal to two yards). The dashing waves rolled the hair into a ball, which, as it lay on the shore, the King of Kochchi (i.e., Cochin) espied. Judging ex pede of the beauty of the woman from whose head the hair had fallen, he resolved to obtain her as his wife. In No. 4 of the Folk-tales of Bengal (Lal Behari Day) the Princess Keshavati loses a hair whilst bathing. It is seven cubits long, and she ties it to a shell, which floats down to where Sahasra Dal is bathing. "The owner of this hair must be a remarkable woman, and I must see her," quoth he. Mr. Lang, in his Perrault (lxxxix), quotes a Santal story about a hero whose cruel stepmother attempts to slay the helpful cow. After his flight and subsequent good fortune, a princess falls in love with a lock of his hair (Ind. Evangelical Review, Oct. 1886). One more parallel. In the story of "The Wicked Stepmother" (Knowles, Folk-tales of Kashmir) a woman drops her nose-ring. It is swallowed by a fish, which the king's cook buys. Search is made for the owner, whose beauty induces the king to marry her.
In the Indian story (No. 235) the heroine loses her shoe in the jungle, and it is sought in vain. A prince out hunting comes across it, and seeks the owner.
Jacob Grimm considers that the shoe incident in Marchen may be based upon the old German custom of using a shoe at betrothals. The bridegroom brings it to the bride, and as soon as he has placed it on her foot she is regarded as subject to his authority. The poem of King Rother may be referred to in this connection. The wooer has two shoes forged, a silver and a golden, and himself fits them on the bride, who places her foot onhis knee (see Deutsche Rechts Alterhumer, Gottingen, 1828, p. 155). At the present day it is customary in Turkey for the bridegroom to provide the bride's dress, down to a pair of satin slippers (I quote from the authority on Turkish Marriages referred to in note 12). In the Danish story (No. 60, p. 284, supra) we read that a beautiful small golden shoe is kept in the royal family, and when a queen is wanted a girl is sought who can wear it. In the Lithuanian story (No. 70, p. 306) the prince gives the little shoes to the heroine for her to wear on the wedding-day. Neither in the Breton story (No. 71, p. 307) is the heroine recognised by means of a lost shoe. She finds two little gold shoes near the heart of the helpful animal when it is slain, and the stepmother takes them, saying they will serve for her own daughter on her wedding-day. The girl mutilates her feet in order to wear them. In the Scotch story (No. 26) the prince gives the heroine a pair of golden shoes, one of which she afterwards loses. In the Portuguese tale (No. 89, p. 341) the shoe is inscribed that it will only fit the owner. In the Icelandic story (No. 9, p. 143) the heroine loses a shoe, and vows she will wed the man who finds it.
Deulin says (Contes de ma Mere l'Oye, p. 264) the lost shoe recalls Jason's lost sandal, by means of which, according to the oracle, he would recover his throne.
The lost shoe occurs in 157 stories, namely, Nos. 1 to 130, inclusive, and in Nos. 144, 151, 152, 153, 162, 163, 164, 166, 175, 181, 182, 197, 199, 203, 204, 206, 208, 211, 220, 222, 224, 235, 255, 256, 263, 307, 310, 311. In No. 41 a glove takes the place of the shoe.
Recognition by means of ring, jewel, etc., occurs in the following: Nos. 131-9, 141-3, 145-8, 150, 154, 155, 157-61, 167, 168, 170, 171 (the impression of the ring on wafer), 173, 174, 176, 178, 180, 183, 185, 190-3, 195, 201, 202, 219, 223, 238, 247, 250, 257, 259, 260, 266, 268, 269, 272, 278, 279, 281, 288, 296, 304, 306, 309; and in the hero-tales, Nos. 321-3, 332 (trophies), 337, 340, 341 (bandage). In No. 324 the princess puts pitch in the hero's hair, so as to know him again.
"As to the material of the slipper" (writes Mr. Ralston, in his paper on "Cinderella", Nineteenth Century, November 1879), "there has been much dispute. In the greater part of what are apparently the older forms of the story, it is made of gold. This may perhaps be merely a figure of speech, but there are instances on record of shoes, or at least sandals, being made of precious metals. Even in our own times, as well as in the days of the Caesars, a horse is said to have been shod with gold. And an Arab geographer, quoted by Mr. Lane, vouches for the fact that the islands of Wak-Wak are ruled by a queen who 'has shoes of gold' . Glass is an all but unknown material for shoe-making in the genuine folk-tales of any country except France [Mr. Ralston refers to the Gaelic tale, Campbell, i, 225] . The use of the word verre by Perrault has been accounted for in two ways. Some critics think that the material in question was a tissu en verre, fashionable in Perrault's time. But the more generally received idea is that the substance was originally a kind of fur called vair--a word now obsolete in France, except in heraldry, but locally preserved in England as the name of the weasel (Spectator, Jan. 4, 1879)--and that some reciter or transcriber, to whom the meaning of vair was unknown, substituted the more familiar but less probable verre . In a Lesghian story from the Caucasus (Schiefner, Awarische Texte, p. 68), a supernatural female being drops a golden shoe, and the hero is sent in search of its fellow, becoming thereby exposed to many dangers." In a note at the end of his paper, Mr. Ralston refers to some interesting articles which have appeared in Notes and Queries on the subject of vair. In No. 286, D. P. quotes from La Colombiere's Science Heroique (Paris, 1699) a description of how vair was composed of patches "faites en forme de petits pots de verre". Balzac, in his Etudes philosophiques sur Catherine de Médicis, published in 1836, wrote as follows: "On distinguait le grand et le menu vair. Ce mot depuis cent ans, est si bien tombé en désuétude que, dans un nombre infini d'éditions des contes de Perrault, la célebre pantoufle de Cendrillon, sans doute de menu vair [or miniver] est présentée comme étant de verre."
In 74 instances out of 157, and probably in Nos. 66,
107, 166, 197,
the shoe is golden. In 57 stories (Nos. 1,
5, 7, 9,
16, 18, 29,
32, 35, 36,
45, 46, 50-54,
57, 58, 68,
70, 76, 78,
82, 88, 89,
99, 100-106, 108,
109, 111, 118,
120, 123, 124,
126, 127, 129,
130, 144, 151,
153, 175, 182,
199, 204, 206,
224, 256, 263,
310) it is not described. In No.
6 (and (?) No. 31) it is silver. In No.
17 it is the smallest of several shoes caught in the pitch.
In Nos. 49, 73, 222,
it is tiny. In No. 48 it is silk;
No. 6, pearl-embroidered; Nos. 93
and 220, satin; No. 122,
spangled with jewels; No. 125, gold-embroidered;
I have found only six instances of glass shoes being worn by the heroine. The stories in which they occur--Nos. 4, 21, 72, 91, 152, and note to 224 (crystal)--have evidently been subjected to a French influence, and that at a comparatively recent date. They are from Scotland (4, 152), the Netherlands (224, note), France (91, Perrault's), Catalonia (72), and Chili (21). There are diamond shoes in the Venetian story (20), and in the Danish story (44). There is an Irish story (from Tralee, Tipperary) in which the hero, who delivers a princess from the sea-serpent which comes every year to devour one of the king's daughters, wears a pair of blue glass shoes. The princess catches hold of one of them when he is riding away. It will fit no one but the owner, who in the end marries the princess (see Folk-lore Journal, i, 54-5). When, in the Kabyle story, "Les Deux Freres" (Rivière, pp. 193-9), Moh'amed slays the seven-headed serpent that guarded the fountain, thereby delivering the princess who had to supply it with food, she carries off one of his sandals. The king has it tried on all the inhabitants of the town, but it fits nobody. When the hero is found, the king gives him his daughter, yields the kingdom to him, and himself becomes his minister. Numerous instances of recognition being brought about by means of a shoe occur in stories not belonging to the Cinderella group. For example, cf. "La Princesse Enchantée", which story is about a youngest son who, after various adventures, enters magic castle, finds sleeping beauty, embraces her and wakes her. Afraid of his own boldness, he springs up, and, in his haste to get away, puts on one of her shoes and one of his own. Princess pursues him, but cannot catch him. She is very unhappy, builds herself beautiful castle, and inscribes on door that any traveller will be lodged free, on condition that he tells his name, whence he comes, whither he goes, and anything extraordinary that has ever befallen him. Hero comes to castle, is entertained by princess and made to recount his adventures. She asks whether he did not find a sleeping princess in the magic castle, and finally, whether he did not carry away something. Gold shoe is shown and compared with princess's. She embraces him, thanks him for having slain black cat which held her enchanted, and for having given the awakening kiss. They are married. (Luzel, Contes pop. de la Basse-Bretagne, Paris, 1887, vol. iii, pp. 203-15.) The following are variants of the same: Archiv fur slavische Philologie, ii, 1876. pp. 614-16; Busk, 167-8; Buchon, La Grèce continentale et la Morée, p. 267 (= Legrand, p. 145); Cosquin, ii, 69, "La Pantoufle de la Princesse"; Dozon, Contes albanais, No. 15; Gaal-Stier, No. 1; Grimm, No. 111, variant, ii, 412; Hahn, No. 52; Haltrich, No. 22; Jahrbuch fur romanische und englische Literatur, vii, p. 384; Zingerle, i, No. 33. Similarly, the recognition by means of a ring occurs in a number of stories which are not Cinderella stories (e.g., Grimm, Nos. 93, 101, etc.)
(P. 307.) The following is a variant of the Breton tale: Gipsy-lore Journal, iii, 204-7 (April, 1892), "Tales in a Tent," by John Sampson:--
"DE LITTLE FOX."
King and queen have lovely daughter. Queen dies. An old witch, who lives at palace lodge-house, talks to the king when she comes to do work, and perceives that his daughter gets jealous. She teaches heroine sewing, and makes her come for her lesson before having breakfast. On the way heroine picks and eats a grain of wheat; and, since it is God's grain, witch has no power over her. This she does two mornings. On the third morning she only picks up a bit of orange-peel, and the old "wise woman" (guzberi gorji) bewitches her, and never sends for her again. Witch tells king his daughter is enceinte. She must be burned, according to custom; the iron chair is got ready, and a cart-load of faggots spread round it. Heroine is placed in the chair, and the fire is about to be kindled, when an old gentleman appears ("My ole dubel, to be shuah!") and begs king not to destroy her, but have her placed in an old boat on the moat surrounding park. This is done. In course of time heroine bears little fox, which immediately speaks and proposes going to grandfather's to get food for its mother. She fears dogs will worry it; but fox passes the dogs unnoticed, meets old witch coming out of hall, and asks to see the king. Hearing what little fox wants, king bids cook fill basket with wine and victuals, which fox carries safely to its mother. Three times he fetches her food. The second time old witch begins to suspect. The third time heroine dresses fox in beautiful robe of fine needlework. King asks fox who his mother is, and who made him the robe; and king weeps bitterly, thinking his own dear child is dead. Fox begs him to arrange a party that afternoon at palace, and then he shall hear who made the robe. But fox's mother must be present. King at last agrees. Fox says there must be story-telling and those that can't sing must tell a tale. King must invite as many people as possible, and be sure to bring the old lady who lives at the lodge. So it happens. After the dinner, when it comes to heroine's turn to sing or tell a tale, she says she cannot, but her little fox can. "Turn out that fox," says the witch, "he stinks!" and interrupts again with the same words as the little fox proceeds with his story of all that has befallen the king's daughter, and of the egg and bacon that the witch fried for her, and its effect upon her. And he points out the witch. Afterwards, when walking in the garden, fox takes leave of his mother, strips off his skin, and flies away in the form of a beautiful white angel. The witch is burned in the iron chair that was meant for the king's daughter.
(P. 311.) "Iron shoes" occur also in No. 89. Ci. Comparetti, No. 51; Crane, pp. 7, 142, 323, 324; Dozon, Contes Albanais, No. 12, "La Belle de la Terre"; Folk-lore Rec., iii, 231, "Prince Wolf"; F.-L. Journal, iii, 295 (Chilian pop. tale); Gonzenbach, No. 32; Gradi, Vigilia, p. 26; De Gubernatis, Sto. Stefano, No. 14; Hahn, Nos. 73, 132; Magyar Folk-tales, p. 262; Ortoli, p. 8; Pentamerone, v, 4; Pitré, No. 6; Vernaleken, p.355; Webster, p. 39; Wolf, Deutsche Hausmar., No. 19, "Die eisernen Stiefel," pp. 75-9.
In Hahn's No. 103 the father will marry his daughter's teacher when his shoes become red. In Grimm's No. 13 the boot with a hole in the sole must hold water first.
Stone shoes must be worn through in Sagas from the Far East, p. 217.
(P. 313.) For jewels or gold from the mouth, cf. Benfey, Pantschatantra, 379-80; Cavallius, No. vii, C; Chambers, p. 105; Cosquin, ii, 118 ff.; Dasent, "Bushy Bride"; Day, Folk-tales of Bengal, No. 5, p. 97; Frere, O. D. D., p. 239, No. 21; Grimm, Nos. 13, 24; Grundtvig, iii, 112; Minaef, No. 33 (a Himalayan tale); Monseur, Folklore Wallon, p. 50; Perrault, "Les Fees"; Portuguese Tales, No. 18, pp. 75-79; Sagas from the Far East, pp. 18, 49; Sastri, Dravidian Nights, p. 129; Stokes, p. 13, No. 2; Temple, Leg. of the Punjab, p. 233.
Roses fall from the mouth in Gonzenbach, No. 34; Hahn, No. 28; Karajich, No. 35; Pentamerone, 4, 7; Pitré, No. 62. Comp. Rivière, Contes Kabyles, p. 51. When the heroine laughs the sun shines, when she weeps, it rains, and roses fall as she walks. This is like the story of the Mussulman in 1001 Nights, Spitta-Bey's No. 11, and the Roumanian story (Das Ausland, 1858, p. 90). Compare Glinski, iii, 97; Schneller, No. 22. The hero laughs roses in Tuti-Nameh (vol. ii, p. 72; Rosen's trans.). In a modern Greek song, when the charming maid laughs, roses fall into her apron ([Greek phrase]), Fauriel, 2, 382. In Heinr. von Neuenstadt's Apollonius of Tyre (composed c. 1400), it is asked, 1. 182, "wâ sach man rosen lachen?"and then follows a tale about a man who laughs roses. The same poem of Apollonius has, at 1. 2370:
Grimm remarks that the myth must have been very popular, as he has frequently found in records, and even at the present day, the names Rosenlacher, Rosenlachler, Blumlacher. (Teut. Myth., 1101.)
(P. 320.) Compare No. 100, in which the stepmother throws the heroine's children into a pond. The incident recurs in Arnason, pp. 370, 411, 413, 428. In each of these stories (except No. 100) the heroine is calumniated and cast forth; but her life is spared, and her children, who have been rescued, are restored to her. She is eventually reunited to her husband. See the references given in note 20.
(P. 333.) In the story of "The Golden Duck" (Gerle, Volksmärchen der Bohmen, No. v) a fairy presents a good girl with the gift that her tears shall be pearls, and the hair she combs out gold. When she grows up she is betrothed because of these gifts and of her beauty, to a count, who has heard of her from her brother. But she must never allow a single ray of sunlight to fall on her, or these magic attributes will discontinue. On the way to her bridegroom she is accompanied by her aunt and cousin, with whom she has been brought up; and once, when the aunt is opening the door of the carriage, one ray of sunlight falls on the bride, and she is instantly changed into a golden duck, which swims away. The aunt presents her own daughter to the count as the bride. (The story is a variant of Grimm's No. 135.)
The ray of light which pierces the little crack in the door, in Grimm's story of "The Singing, Soaring Lark," transforms the lion-prince into a dove. In Gonzenbach's No. 32 (which has many of the incidents common to Cinderella tales), Caterina must not go near the sea, or she will turn into a sea serpent. In Schneller's No. 22 the heroine must beware of a ray of sunlight.
For gold-producing animals, cf. Arnason, p. 566 (mare); Asbjornsen, No. 7 (goat); Dozon, No. 17 (lion); Erdelyi-Stier, No. 12 (lamb); Etlar, p. 150 (hen); F.-L. Journal, vi, 21, Aino tale (gold puppy and silver puppy); Glinski, iv, 106 (lamb); Gonzenhach, No. 52 (ass); Baring Gould (Appendix on Household stories, in Henderson's North. Counties, 1866), No. 7 (ass); Grimm, No. 36 (ass), No. 122 (heart of bird); Lootens, p. 9 (sheep); Pantschatantra, bk. iii, Fable 5 (swan's gold feather), and Fable 13 (bird); Pentamerone, i, 1 (ass); Natesa Sastri, Dravidian Nights, pp. 129, 149 ff.; Schneller, No. 15 (ass); Schott, No. 20 (ass); Strackerjan, ii, 312 (hen); Vernaleken, No. 11 (she-goat); Waldau, p. 41 (ram); Wojcicki, p 108 (ram and hen); Zingerle, ii, 84 (hen), 185 (ass). Compare the gold-producing birds in the Mahabharata (also the gold-producing son of King Srinjaya, see Clouston, i, 124); AEsop's fable of the goose that laid the golden egg; and the golden eggs of the hen in the stories of "Jack the Giant-Killer" and "Jack and the Beanstalk". In La Fontaine's Contes et Nouvelles there is a dog "qui secoue de l'argent et des pierreries". Cf. Sagas from the Far East, p. 18, "The Gold-spitting Prince."
(P. 346.) In Imbriani (Nov. fior., No. xvii, "II Re Avaro"), the avaricious king forces his daughter to marry a thief who has tried to pass for a gentleman. Father is invited by his daughter to a feast, and given every dish without flavouring, whilst the other guests are praising the exquisite delicacies.
In a Hindoo variant, "The Princess who loved her Father like Salt" (Stokes, Ind. Fairy Tales, No. 23, p. 164), the heroine is abandoned in the jungle, where she is miraculously fed. Presently she reaches a place where the king's son is lying dead, his body stuck full of needles. She has pulled all of them out except those in the eyes, when she leaves a slave in charge whilst she rests. The slave disobeys injunctions, completes the task, and the prince comes to life again. He marries the slave, who pretends she has delivered him, and the heroine is degraded to slavery. The truth eventually comes to light, and the prince marries the heroine, whose parents are invited to the wedding.
In a Tyrolese version (Zingerle, Kinder- und Hausmärchen aus Tirol, No. 31) the youngest daughter gives the king a little salt as a birthday present, and is driven away. After a time she becomes her father's cook, and serves up his food without salt. This leads to the usual explanation and restoration to favour.
Pitré also refers to Storia della Regina Oliva figliuolo di Giuliano Imperatore e moglie del Re di Castiglia, by Foriano Pico. Naples, 17th cent.
(P. 349) Dr. Pitré says that this story seems a mixture of two or three tales, and compares it (amongst others which I have tabulated) with "Zezolla", Pentamerone, i, 6, and "Cenerentola" in Cinque Storie della Nonna (Turin, B. Paravia). The principle, he says, is common to many other tales, of which it would be enough to cite "The Empress Rosina" and "The Parrot who told three Tales" (Pitré); "Tea Tecla e Teopista" (Gradi, No. 2); "Zelinda and the Monster" (Imbriani, Nov. fior., No. 21); "Fola del Mercant" (Coronedi-Berti). The meetings of the young king with the maiden in the garden, her disappearance, and his sickening, recur in the second half of "Orza", Pent., ii, 6 (see No. 149). The apparitions of the fair unknown at the king's court are like that of Giuseppe in "The three Mountains crowned with Gold" (Pitré). Ninetta's going into the prince's garden may be compared with that of the seven gossips in the mother-monster's garden to gather jujubes (Gonzenbach, No. 53). See also "The Old Woman of the Garden" (Pitré).
(P. 357.) A similar incident occurs in the opening of the story of "Sigurdr the King's Son" (Arnason, pp. 278 ff.) The king is leaving the house of the brown dog, where he has found hospitable entertainment for himself and for his horse, when the brown dog reproaches him with ingratitude, and threatens his life unless he will promise to give him whatever he first meets on his return home. In three days' time the dog comes for the king's youngest daughter. The same promise is exacted from the king by the lion-prince in Grimm's "Singing, Soaring Lark". This is a distortion of the Jephtha formula, which is itself (as Mr. Lang says, Cupid and Psyche) "a moral warning against rash vows, combined with a reminiscence of human sacrifice". Compare other stories of the "Beauty and the Beast" type (as, e.g., Cosquin's "Le Loup Blanc", ii, 215 ff., and variants), and see also Nos. 275 and 297 of this collection.
(P. 367.) For "kiss of oblivion" see Am. F.-L. Journal, iv, 252; Bibl. de las Trad. pop., i, 187; Braga, No. 6; Busk, p. 8, "Filagranata"; Campbell, i, 34, "The Battle of the Birds," and p. 56; Coronedi-Berti, No. 13; Finamore, Abruzz., No. 4; F.-L. Journal, i, 323, "Grey Norris" (Irish tale); ii, 16, "Prince Unexpected" (Polish tale); Glinski, i, 124; Gonzenbach, Nos. 13, 14, 54, 55, and notes; Grimm, No. 56, "Sweetheart Roland"; No. 186, "The True Sweetheart"; No. 193, "The Drummer"; Hahn, No. 54; Kletke, ii, 78; Household Stories from the Land of Hofer, "Dove Maiden"; Kohler in Orient and Occident, ii, 103 ff., and notes to Kreutzwald (1869); Luzel, pp. 26, 39; MacInnes, pp. 1 ff., 137, 438, 459; Maspons, Rondallayre, i, p. 85; Müllenhoff, p. 400; Pentamerone, Nos. 17, 29; Pitré, No. 13; Revue Celtique, p. 374 ff.; Rivista di litt. pop., i, (1878), p. 83; Schmidt, Nos. 5, 12; Schneller, No. 27; Thorpe, p. 448, "Goldmaria and Goldfeather"; Webster, p. 127; Wolf, p. 286.
In the Lorraine story, "La Chatte Blanche" (Cosquin, ii, 9 ff.), the hero loses his beauty when kissed by his grandmother. In the Kaffir tale (S. Af. F.-L. Journal, i, 5), the man who has been bewitched by an enemy regains human form when kissed by a girl. In an Icelandic story (Arnason, 422) a dog licks the ointment off the hero, causing him to forget his love, who had anointed him.
The "curse of oblivion" occurs in the Legend of Bharata Mahabhrata, upon which is founded the drama of Sakuntala, by Kalidasa. It is incurred through tasting food in "The Mastermaid", Dasent, p. 71, and through swallowing an enchanted powder in "Panch-Phul Ranee", Frere, O. D. D., p. 143. In Keightley's Fairy Myth., i, 74, Ogier is placed under a spell by Morgan the Fay, making him forget family, friends, and country. Cf. Magyar Folk-tales, p. 25, "Handsome Paul"; Ralston, p. 131. There is food which brings forgetfulness in Saxo, Hist. Dan., viii. In Saxo's account of King Gorm's and Thorkil's journey to the lower world, Thorkil warns his travelling companions not to taste the drinks or accept the courtesies that will there be offered to them, or they will lose all memory of the past, and remain for ever in Gudmund's realm (H. D., i, 424). The Danes heeded the advice, and ate and drank the provisions that they had taken with them. See Rydberg, Teut. Myth., 213, 351. This recalls the case of Persephone, who cannot for ever quit Hell, because she tasted there of a pomegranate. In the Icelandic tale the heroine is warned not to eat the food the Dale-queen will give her (Arnason, 516). Upon the subject of not tasting food in Hell, see Lang's Cupid and Psyche, xxxvi; Myth, Ritual, and Religion, ii, 26; Custom and Myth, p. 171. Wainomoinen refuses drink when among the dead. Cf. also Cavallius, No. 14 B; Dennys, Folk-lore of China, p. 98; F.-L. Journal, vi, 192; Ralston, p. 299; etc. In "The King's Son and Messeria" (Thorpe, p. 203), forgetfulness follows the hero's tasting of food when absent from his bride, and it is the result of uttering words in his father's house in "The King's Son and Princess Singorra" (ibid., p. 216). A "grain of oblivion" is put into the hero's mouth in No. 48 of this collection.
The "drink of oblivion" occurs in No. 29. See also Arnason, pp. 256, 377; Frere, O. D. D., p. 260, "Chandra's Vengeance." (In the Icelandic story (Arnason, 377), besides the potion of forgetfulness, there is a drink which obliges one to speak the truth.) A hern of forgetfulness hovers over the drink in Havamál Str., 13, 15. In Gudrunarkvida, ii, 21, a song written in Christian times, the heathen mythic drink that was given to the child Heimdal (Hyndla's Lay) reappears as a potion of forgetfulness allaying sorrow. See Rydberg, Teut. Myth., 92. Compare the Lethe myth. Grimhild gives a potion to Sigfred which makes him forget his love, Brunhild (see Corpus Poet. Bor., i, 289, 393, 395); she gives one also to her daughtcr Gudrun (ib., i, 316, 321). Valkyrs, elfins, and enchantresses offer to heroes their drinking-horns that they may forget all else and stay with them. So did Gondul offer the comers drink out of a horn; see Grimm, Teut. Myth., 420. A beautifully dressed and garlanded maiden from the Osenberg offers the Count of Oldenburg a draught in a silver horn, while uttering predictions (Deutsche Sagan, No. 541). Svend Falling drank out of the horn handed him by elf-women (Thiele, 2, 67). Svend Falling is identical with Siegfried (see Grimm, p. 372). In a Swedish folk-song in Arvidsson, 2, 301, three mountain-maids hold out silver tankards in their white hands. Comp. some Norwegian traditions in Faye, pp. 26-8-9, 30, and some Danish in Thiele, 1, 49, 55. Brynhildr or Sigrdrifa fills a goblet and brings it to Sigurd (Volsunga Saga). A white lady offers a silver goblet in Koch's Reise d. Oestr., p. 262. A maiden hands the horn, and is cut down, Wieselgren, 455. Subterraneans offer similar drink, Müllenhoff, p. 576; and a jatte hands a horn, Runa, 1844, 88. Cf. the Swedish tale in Afzelius, 2, 159, 160, and the song in Arvidsson, 2, 179, 282, where the miner makes the maiden drink of the glomskans horn, and forget father and mother, heaven and earth, sun and moon. Helen makes a magic potion, mingling spices with the wine (Od., 4, 220-230); so does Circe (Od., 10, 235). The Faroese still call the draught of oblivion ouminni (see Grimm, 1632). Upon the connection between kissing and the minne-drinking at sacrifices and in sorcery, see ib., 1101. (Minna in the Swedish folk-songs and minde in the Danish signify to kiss. Comp. [Greek name], love-potion.
(P. 369.) In the story of "The Paunch" (Arnason, pp. 366 ff.), the unnatural father ties his daughter to a rope, which she contrives to transfer to the bitch, while she makes her escape.
(P. 370.) I have found a curious variant of this incident in Eugen Prym und Albert Socin, Der Neu-Aramaische Dialekt des Tur' Abdin. Gottingen, 1881. No. XXII. Vol. ii, p. 75.
Heroine lives with married brother, whose wife calumniates her till he has her shut up in her room and bread and water taken to window. Wife one day puts snake in water-jug, and heroine swallows it unawares. It grows inside her. Brother, wishing to spare her from reproach, invites her to go riding with him, and takes her away to the mountains. She complains of thirst, and he bids her follow a bee which is passing at the moment, for it will lead her to where there is water. She is to drink and return to him; but meanwhile he rides off. She rides after the bee for two days, and then finds water. When she rides back her brother has gone. She dismounts, ties the mare to her feet, and goes to sleep. A prince who has been hunting finds her and speaks to her, but she does not answer. He takes her with him; and, as for two whole days she has spoken no word, he asks physician what is amiss with her. Doctor says she has a snake inside her. They must heat a cauldron of milk over the fire, and lay a sieve over the top, hang the girl head downwards over it, and the snake will fall from her mouth on to the sieve, and she will be able to talk. So it happens. One day, when heroine is at the well drawing water, she is carried off by a giant. She is eventually found and liberated by her brother, who in the meantime has killed his wife and set out to seek his sister.
Compare the way in which the alp luachra is enticed forth in the Irish Gaelic story (Hyde, Beside the Fire, 65-67). Possibly the snake in the Cinderella tale was attracted by the stream near which the heroine lay down.
(P. 376.) This incident recalls Grimm's story of "The Three Spinners", in which three deformed women will spin for the heroine, provided she wilt invite them to her wedding. They suggest the three Moipai, daughters of [Greek name]. For variants of the spinning story, see Busk, F.-L. R. pp. 375 ff.; Chambers, p. 76; Dasent, p. 198; Grimm, Nos. 14, 55; Ipswich Journal, Jan. 15, 1878, "Tom Tit Tot"; Henderson, Northern Counties, p. 258, "Habetrot"; Hunt, Pop. Romances, p. 239; Knoop, Volkssagen, Erzahlungen und Märchen aus dem Oestlichen Hinterpommern, p. 223, No. 12, "Die Spinnerin"; Magyar Folk-tales, p. 46; Pedroso, Port.-Tales, p. 79; Symington, Pen and Pencil Sketches of Faroe and Iceland, p. 240; Thorpe, xi and 168; Tuscan Fairy Tales, p. 43; Webster, p. 56; etc.
(P. 393.) Similarly, the hoodie makes the giant return the axe in "The Battle of the Birds" (Campbell, i, 33); and in "Schwester und Bruder" (Toeppen, p. 146) a bird each time makes the witch-mother take back home the axe and spade, which she has fetched to demolish the obstacles to pursuit.
(P. 401.) Compare Arnason, p. 366, "The Paunch"; Gonzenbach, i, 155, "Von dem Kinde der Mutter Gottes"; Wolf's Z., iv, 224 (Slovac tale).
(P. 409.) The writer on Turkish marriages, whom I quote in note 12, states that the bridegroom, without lifting the bride's veil, or yet seeing her face, encircles her waist with a diamond zone, the old one being thrown aside. This custom affords a curious parallel to the marriage ceremony described in the Swedish tale (No. 302). In all the stories of this class (see Nos. 276, 283, 284, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 299, 303), it is evident that the bridegroom is not familiar with the features of his betrothed, or he is party to the deception practised on him; for only in No. 290 is the bride described as being closely veiled.
(P. 416.) I am indebted to the kindness of Sig. Vid Vuletic-Vukasovic, of Curzola, Dalmatia, for some interesting "Observations", which I here translate, on the story of "Pepeljuga" (Cinderella):--
No story is so widely diffused amongst the Southern Slavs as that of Cinderella. In every variety of circumstance she is an unfortunate orphan whose mother has died a natural death, or has been the victim of sacrifice. Even the smallest village has more than one variant of the story, which may be referred to one of two distinct types; the first derived from an Italian collection, Nuovo libro delle fateA; the second taken from the stories related by the Serbs. On these two prototypes almost all the other versions are based. In Dalmatia all variants of Cinderella (called ' Cuzza-tzenere' in Spalatro, Sebenico, and the island of BrazzaB) have been somewhat influenced by the Italian prototype, while the second prototype has coloured the remaining variants of the story, found on the peninsula of Balcanica, and, united with the first, has produced a commingled version found throughout Dalmatia and the sea-board of Croatia. In Dalmatia it is always narrated in Slav, as also in Bosnia, Herzegovina, and in other districts of the Balkans. This story has entered so realistically into the national life that the term 'Pepeljuga' is commonly applied to any poor girl who is persecuted or neglected.
"In the mountains, where the people principally lead pastoral lives, the mother [in the story] gets transformed into a heifer; whereas on the coast the mother dies a natural death, or is killed by the two elder daughters, and mourned by the youngest. In the mountains, the heifer is a sort of tutelary genius to the poor innocent girl, and when it is slain, 'she who loved it in life' (this is the customary phrase with the Slays), 'loves it still when dead'. Accordingly, in obedience to the injunction, she collects the bones and religiously buries them in a heap. It is well known that the Southern Slavs bury their dead under enormous monuments called Stecci. These are full of symbolical signs and other data drawn from the life of the deceased. More than three hundred thousand similar monuments have been enumerated in Bosnia, Herzegovina, Upper Dalmatia, and ancient Serbia, etc.; and during the last ten years the present writer has been at pains to illustrate them with their respective 'Ancient-Bosnian Epitaphs' in the archaeological journals of Agram, Sarajevo, and Belgrade.
"In Dalmatia, also, the dead mother's bones are collected by the youngest daughter and deposited in a tomb under the shadow of some tree, such as a walnut, a hazel, a pomegranate, or an apple-tree, etc. In the mountains the girl receives no visitation; while in Dalmatia her dead mother appears to her in the form of a fairy (ninfa), comforts her, and gives her a magic wand with which to strike the tomb, in order to obtain assistance when in trouble.
"In the mountains, the two doves appear and converse with the orphan. In Dalmatia she goes to the ball in a carriage, having obtained all she requires from the nut, apple, or other tree; in the mountains there simply appears a casket, in which she finds the several dresses. In the mountains the task is of two sorts: up to the time of the death of the heifer it consists in spinning, and afterwards in performing the most menial household duties, and in picking up millet or lentils; while in Dalmatia, in a large number of variants, the task consists solely in spinning, and is performed at a stroke of the magic wand. In Dalmatia, in the several variants, millet and lentils are mixed together, and, by means of the magic wand, are sorted by a number of birds and ants. In Dalmatia the girl escapes from the ball under the excuse of going to drink some water, or fasten her garters, or so on; while in the upper districts of the Balkans she escapes before the end of divine service, or before the fair is over--for in this region she goes either to church or to the fair.
"In Dalmatia there is not always a cruel stepmother, but there are invariably the two cruel sisters, more ugly than the youngest; while in the higher districts there is always a cruel stepmother with her one ugly daughter. In Dalmatia the enchantments are brought about by means of the magic wand, while in the mountains the girl simply prays; thus, in Dalmatia, either Spanish or Italian genius has had some influence on the popular tale.
"In Dalmatia it is always 'the king's son', in the mountains 'the emperor's son'. The king's son, in Dalmatia, smears the steps of the palace with tar, that the shoes may adhere to them; but in the mountainous districts the girl simply loses her shoe in escaping through the crowd. In both varieties of the story the father plays an insignificant role, and in Dalmatia next to none. In all districts the search is of a similar nature, but there is some variety as to the manner in which the heroine is discovered; for instance, in the mountains she is hidden by her stepmother under a trough and spied by a cock; in Dalmatia, in the garret or under the chimney. In every case she appears in the clothes she wore at the last church or ball, but without the corresponding shoe. When she is recognised she is married to the son of the king or emperor. There is, however, this difference: in Dalmatia the two ugly sisters often figure in the wedding procession, and are punished by the two doves, which peck out an eye of each.
"Finally, it should be remarked that the dresses are more magnificent in Dalmatia than in the mountains; for in Dalmatia the first dress is of silk, ornamented with birds; the second is of silver, ornamented with the fishes of the sea; the third is of gold, ornamented with sun, moon, and stars. In the mountainous districts the dress enters the casket at the simple word of command, and disappears; in Dalmatia it enters the nut, or apple, and vanishes by virtue of the magic wand.
"There are but few variants in Dalmatia in which the two elder sisters eat their mother's flesh (which incident is probably borrowed from the Spanish), and in one solitary version Cinderella is in the service of some Dominican friars, and being persecuted by them, escapes to a forest and transforms herself into a serpent; she is presently retransformed into a lovely maiden by a king's son who is out hunting, armed with a gun, and with whom she had formerly been in love."
A: Sig. Vid Vuletic-Vukasovic
has kindly furnished me with a transcription of the version of "La
Cenerentola", found in the above-named collection, but I have not
reproduced it, as it differs in no respect whatsoever from Grimm's "Aschenputtel".
B: In Bosnia, Herzegovina, and
Servia she is called exclusively "Pepeljuga"; in Lika, Croatia,
"Pepeljavica"; and in Bol (Is. of Brazza), "Pepeljuznica".
(P. 458.) In No. 335 the hero has the power to become invisible. With the invisible veil compare the tarnkappe, the nebelkappe of King Alberich, the wishing-cap of Fortunatus, Perseus' cap, the ring of Gyges (Plato, Repub., 359, 360), the ring which makes Discordia invisible (Troj., 1303-24), Pluto's or Orcus's helmet ([Greek name], Il., 5, 845; Hesiod, Scut., 227), and the mantle of Arthur and the ring of Luned, which were reckoned amongst the thirteen precious things of the Island of Britain (Mabinogion, p. 286). Other things which make invisible are an adder's crown (Atternkronlein, Grimm, T. M., 687); a bird's nest (Deutsche Sagen, No. 85; Haupt, Zeitschrift, 3, 361; Mone, Anz., 8, 539); the right-hand tail-feather of a cock (Luciani Somn., 28-9); the finger-ring of Dame Aventiure (Suchenwirth, No. xxv); heliotrope,A Sonnenwedel, laid under a stone (Mone, 8, 614); and fern-seed (Wolf, Zeitschrift, 2, 30). So Shakespeare says, "We have the receipt of fern-seed, we walk invisible" (I Henry IV, ii, 1). The Wend. volkst., 2, 271a, makes it blossom at Midsummer noon. In Redeker's Westf. Sagen, No. 46, other details are given: "Fern-seed makes one invisible; it is difficult to procure; it ripens only between twelve and one on Midsummer night, and falls off directly and is gone." Mr. Fraser says: "Fern-bloom on Midsummer Eve makes invisible" (Golden Bough, ii, 287), and gives a number of references. According to Mr. Ralston (see Songs of the Russian People, p. 98), the ideas associated with the fern in other lands are current also in Russia. At certain periods of the year it bursts into fiery blossoms, which disappear almost instantaneously, for evil spirits swarm thickly round them and carry them off. He tells the best way to obtain them, but the particulars are too lengthy to quote. These magic blossoms appear on St. John's Day at Midsummer, as well as on Easter Day (Athanas'ev, P. V. S., ii, 379). A number of similar traditions about the fern, from German sources, will be found in Kelly's Curiosities of Judo-European Tradition and Folk-lore, pp. 181, 200.
Gods can appear and vanish as they please (see note 6). For gods becoming visible Homer has a special word, [Greek name], Il. 20, 131; and see Od. 7, 201; 16, 161. Comp. [Greek name], Lucian's Sat., 10); and against their will they can be seen of none (Od., 10, 573). Dwarfs and men, to become invisible, need some outward means. The dwarf-tales tell of nebelkappen (Deutsche Sagen, Nos. 152, 153, 155), of grey coats and red caps (Thiele, i, 122, 135), and of scarlet cloaks (Deutsche Sagen, No. 149). Compare the huldre-hat (Asbjornsen, 1, 70, 158-59). Grimm gives a spell (No. LI) to make oneself invisible, part of which says, "Christus ist mein Mantel, Rock, Stock und Fuss, seine heilige funf Wunden mich verbergen thun."
For examples in folk-tales of various gear to render the wearer invisible, see the following: Asbjornsen, 1, 70, 158-59; Am. F.-L. Journal, i, 76 (cap); Arnason, p. 397; Busk, F.-L. R., pp. 129-30; Clouston, Pop. Tales and Fictions, i, 72 ff. Cosquin, ii, 80, 256; Crane, pp. 1, 23; Dasent, p. 181, "Three Princesses of Whiteland"; F.-L. .Rec., i, 211; ii, 10, 13; Frere O. D. D., p. 39 ff.; Grimm, Deut. S., No. 85 (flower); Kathasaritsagara, story of King Mahásena, and story of King Putraka; Mabinogion, p. 13; Melusine, 1876, c. 17 ff., "Le Voleur avise"; Mitford, Tales of Old Japan, "Little Peachling"; Morolt, 1305 (magic ring with nightingale in it); Pedroso, Port. Tales, 'Dancing Shoes"; Ralston, R. F. T., p.253; and Songs of the Russian People, p. 98; Sagas from Far East, p. 18, "Gold-spitting Prince"; Schreck, Finnische Marchen, No. 3; Stokes, No. 21, pp. 59, 138; Symington, Pen and Pencil Sketches of Faroe and Iceland, p. 247 (stone); Thorpe, p. 342, "Svend'sExploits" (finger-stall); Tuscan Fairy Tales, No. 10, pp. 102-12; Vernaleken, pp. 153 (cap), 289, and 355 (cloak); Wide-Awake Stories, p. 37 ff.
A: According to
Pliny, it was the precious stone heliotrope that would render the wearer
invisible (see H. N., xxxvii, 10, 60); compare "Senza sperar
pertugio o elitropia", Inferno, xxiv, 93.
(P. 423.) Bees bring the juice of flowers to the mouth of the shepherd Komatas, Theocritus, 7, 60-89. Semiramis, the daughter of the fish-goddess, Dercete, of Ascalon, and the Syrian youth, was exposed when an infant by her mother, and miraculously preserved by doves, who fed her till she was discovered by the shepherd Simmas (from whom she derived her name), Diodorus, ii, 1-20. Elijah was fed by ravens. A woodpecker purveyed for Romulus and Remus, when the wolf's milk did not suffice them, Ov., Fasti, 3, 37, 54.
A wookpecker also brought food to the sons of Mars. It was called [Greek name], and was held sacred by the ancient peoples of Italy.
See also Frere's O. D. D., pp. 84-90 (eagles).
(P. 428.) Spittle speaks in the following stories:--Athanas'ev, i, No, 3b; Callaway, p. 64, "Umtomhinde"; Campbell, i, 55, "Battle of the Birds" [SurLaLune: See Joseph Jacob's version]; F.-L. Journal, ii, 14, "Prince Unexpected" (Polish story); Grimm, i, 414, variant of "Hansel und Grethel"; Kohler, Orient u. Occ., ii, 112; Magyar Folk-tales, xxxiii, "Fairy Helena"; Ralston, pp. 142, "The Baba Yaga," 161; Vernaleken, "The Drummer," p. 292; Webster, p. 125. A door, when spat upon, answers (Müllenhoff, p. 399).
Drops of blood speak in Kalewala, in Dasent's "Mastermaid" (p. 71), and in Grimm's "Sweetheart Roland" (No. 56). Tufts of hair speak in Theal, p. 131. Compare the talking sticks in 204 of this collection.
In the Edda, the spittle of the waves was shaped by the gods into a man, whose blood, when he was slain, was mixed with honey and made into the mead, of which, if a man drink, he becomes a poet and a sage (see Corpus Poet. Boreale, i, 464).
(P. 448.) For the incident of stealing the key and liberating the bird, compare Thorpe's "Princess on the Glass Mountain", pp. 86-94; Grundtvig, Danische Volksmärchen, i, 228; Zingerle (Tyrol), i, 28; Deulin, Contes du Roi Cambrinus, ii, 151; Webster, p. 22; Roméro, No. 8; and Grimm, No. 136, "Iron John" (which is a variant of the whole story given by Athanas'ev).
(P. 449.) The following story was amongst the number selected for me by Dr. Karlowicz. It seems rather to belong to the "Puss-in-Boots" type, the title alone suggesting likeness to the Cinderella group:--
E. Romanov, Byelorussky Sbornik (Recueil blanc-ruthenien), 5 vols. Kieff et Witebsk, 1885-91. Vol. iii, pp. 226-27, (From the village of Slidce, near Lukomla, in the district of Sienno, Government of Mohilew.)
The youth Popelyska who is always in the ashes of the hearth, has a cat which lives on the stove. Cat proposes to marry his master to the daughter of Thunder and Lightning, and goes to Thunder to arrange the marriage. On the way back he tells Mr. Serpent's mowers that when Mr. Thunder passes by with his suite they must say that they work for Mr. Popelyska; he gives the same directions also to the haymakers and to the herdsmen. Cat calls on Mr. Serpent at his palace, and tells him that Mr. Thunder will be passing shortly, and unless he hides himself in the hollow oak he is certain to be burnt. After the wedding they all set out for Mr. Popelyska's. The labourers reply that they belong to Mr. P. The cat leads the guests to the palace of Mr. Serpent, saying it is the estate of Mr. P., who, he tells Thunder, is much annoyed by the serpent's proximity, and he shows him his hole. Thunder and Lightning send a thunder-bolt at the oak; Serpent is struck dead and burnt up. Popelyska lives happily at the castle, and the cat becomes his steward.
I here give brief abstracts of three more of the stories for which I am indebted to Dr. Karlowicz. The Cinderella element in them is not sufficiently prominent to warrant their inclusion amongst the other variants.
Ch. Balinski, Powiesci ludu (Folk-tales). Edited by K. W. Wojcicki. Warsaw, 1842. Pp. 95-104.
A young and wealthy gentleman loses his fortune, and becomes a soldier under the king. He is so very poor that he wraps himself up in a sheepskin cloak, whence his name. King's daughter is carried off by a robber, who lives underground. The soldier delivers the princess, and, after numerous adventures, marries hers.
Sadok Baracz. Bajki, fraszki, podania, etc. (Contes, etc., de la Ruthenie), Tarnopol, 1866. Pp. 118-25.
A poor widow has a good-for-nothing son. A sorcerer comes and takes him away under pretext of teaching him something. He sends him into subterranean regions to fetch him old lanterns. Hero falls asleep there and sleeps seven years. Having found the lanterns and other talismans, he returns above ground. The king, learning that hero possesses talismans and riches, wants to marry him to his daughter, but first imposes difficult tasks, which hero accomplishes with the aid of his talismans. He marries the princess and lives happily. The sorcerer hearing all this, appears on the scene to ruin his whilom pupil, takes his lanterns away, and reduces him to poverty. But certain grateful beasts come to his assistance and restore him to wealth and happiness. The sorcerer perishes of hunger on his glass mountain.
N.B.--The good-for-nothing son is always asleep in the ashes of the stove, and goes to the king dirty and ill-clad.
A. J. Glinski, Bajarz polski, 4 vols., 2nd ed. Wilna, 1862. Vol. i, pp. 38-66, No. 2.
"SILLY JOHN; HIS HORSE, HIS QUAIL, AND HIS PIG."
An old sorcerer, in dying, bequeaths to Silly John, his youngest son, a knowledge of witchcraft, and a horse, a quail, and a pig. A king has three daughters, and promises to give the youngest to the victor at the tournament. Aided by his magic beasts John is victorious, though his brothers think him silly, and though he passes all his time by the stove.
[A long story, embracing a mass of incidents].
It may be well to add in outline two stories not infrequently referred to as Cinderella variants:--
Otto Knoop, Volkssagen, Erzählungen und Märchen aus dem Oestlichen Hinterpommern. Posen, 1885. Pp. 192-194.
IV.--"DER DUMME HANS."
Youngest son, with magic flutes, scales glass mountain to win princess. He gives her a ring, by means of which he is recognised when, after a yeas's interval, he returns for his bride.
Heinrich Pröhle, Kinder- und Volksmärchen. Leipzig, 1853. No. 10.
"DER GEIST DES RINGES UND DER GEIST DES LICHTES."
Widow's son gets lost at the age of fifteen. He becomes possessed of light and ring, which are talismans. He does not hide his head as commanded, when princess is carried through the town, but sees her and woos her. After performing tasks he weds her.
The following separate motifs of the Cinderella story have been pointed out to me by Dr. Karlowicz:--
Wojcicki, Klechdy, etc., ii, 83. A king's daughter must become a servant for a whole year, in order to deliver a young man, who has been transformed through enchantment into a crow.
Kolberg, Lud. Krakowskie, 114-117. Here we find Cinderella in the role of sister-of-mercy in a soldier's hospital. A young prince is wounded, and recognises the princess in the nurse who attends him at the hospital.
Zbiör wiadomosci, etc., vol. xi, pp. 270-272. A beautiful story, taken down in Polish by Dr. Karlowicz, in 1869, (From the district of Lida, Government of Wilna.) In order to humiliate a haughty princess, a king's son takes service as under-gardener at the palace of her parents. Thus he plays a role equivalent to that of Cinderella; and in the end he is triumphant.
In the history of Polytechnos and Aedon, Chelidon, her sister, is forced to become a sort of Cinderella, slave and servant.
In a Talmudic story, King Solomon, robbed by Asmodeus of his magic ring, is compelled to take service as scullion at the court of the king of the Ammonites; after a time he becomes the lover of the king's daughter. Veselovsky, Slavyanskiya, skazaniya o Solomonye i Kitovrasye (Slavonic legends of Solomon and of Kentauros-[in Russian]). Petersburg, 1872. Pp. 110-11. Cf. Varnhagen, Ein indisches Märchen, Berlin, 1882. Pp. 19-20.
(P. 450.) "It seems to be a common custom with hunters to cut out the tongues of the animals which they kill. Omaha hunters remove the tongue of a slain buffalo through an opening made in the animal's throat. The tongues thus removed are sacred, and may not touch any tool or metal, except when they are boiling in the kettles at the sacred tent. They are eaten as sacred food. (Third Report of the Bureau of Ethnology (Washington), p. 289 sq.) Indian bear-hunters cut out what they call the bear's little tongue (a fleshy mass under the real tongue), and keep it for good luck in hunting, or burn it to determine, from its crackling, etc., whether the soul of the slain bear is angry with them or not. (Kohl, Kitschi-Gami, ii, 251 sq.; Charlevoix, Histoire de la Nouvelle France, v, 173; Chateaubriand, Voyage en Amerique, pp. 179 sq., 184.) In folk-tales the hero commonly cuts out the tongue of the wild beast which he has slain, and preserves it as a token. The incident serves to show that the custom was a common one, since folk-tales reflect with accuracy the customs and beliefs of a primitive age. (For examples of the incident, see Blade, Contes agenais, pp. 52, 14; Dasent, "Shortshanks"; Schleicher, Litauische Märchen, p. 58; Sepp, Altbagerischer Sagenschatz, p. 114; Köhler on Gonzenbach, Sicilianische Märchen, ii, 230; Apollodorus, iii, 13, 3; Mannhardt, Antike Wald- und Feldkulte, p. 53; Poestion, Lappländische Märchen, p. 231 sq.) It may be suggested that the cutting out of the tongues is a precaution to prevent the slain animals from telling their fate to the live animals, and thus frightening away the latter. At least, this explanation harmonises with the primitive modes of thought revealed in the foregoing customs." (Frazer's Golden Bough, ii, 129, note.)
In a story in Asiatic Journal, New Series, vol. xxiv, 1837, p. 196, two princes cut off a portion of a lion's tail as trophy. The palace washerman finds dead lion, cuts off its head, and pretends to the hand of the princess. The imposture is exposed.
Alcathous, son of Peiops, kills the Cithaeronian lion that ravages the country of King Megareus, and cuts out its tongue. (Pausanias, i, 41, 4, and schol., Apollonius of Rhodes on i, 517.)
For Stories (like No. 323) in which the hero delivers a princess from a dragon, or monster (St. George and the Dragon), cf. Asbjornsen, Tales of the Fjeld, p. 223; Brueyre, "Red Etin"; Campbell, No. 4, var. i; lxiii; i, 76, 77; Chambers, pp. 262, 296; Clouston, i, 155 ff.; Comparetti, No 32, 55; Cosquin, i, 14, 19, 60, 64, 167; ii, 57, 165, 256; Day, Folk-tales of Bengal, pp. 73-7; Dennys, Folk-lore in China, etc.; Dozon, No. 14; Erdelyi-Stier, No. 1; Finamore, No. 19, p. 87; F.-L. Journal, i, 55; vi, 159, "Death of Diarmid", etc.; Friis, "Bondesonnen"; Gonzenbach, Nos. 40, 44; ii, 230; Baring Gould, Curious Myths, 297-99; The Seven Champions of Christendom, Grimm, Nos. 60, 111; Grundtvig, ii, 194; Gubernatis, Sto. Stefano. No. 23; Gipsy-lore Journal, iii, 84, 208; Hahn, No. 70; Henderson, North. Counties, 281 ff.; Household Stories from Land of Hofer, p. 214, "The Three Black Dogs"; Indian Antiquary, i, 170; Jahrbuch fur rom. u. eng. Lit., vii, 132; Katha sarit Sagara, bk. vii, ch. 42; vol. i, p. 385 (Tawney's trans.); MacInnes, comp. p. 299; Magyar Tales, p. 374; Meier, No. 29; Pitre, ii, 215; Ralston, "Ivan Popzalof," pp. 70, 347-48; Riviere, p. 195 (serpent controls water-supply; is propitiated daily with food); Sagas from the Far East, p. 18, "Gold-spitting Prince"; Schneller, No. 39; Schott, No. 10; Scott's Arabian Nights, vi, "King Yewen and his Three Sons"; Sebillot, Haute Bretagne, 1, No. 9; Stokes, pp. 65, 178, 269; Temple, Leg. of the Punjab, vol. i, p. 17 ff.; Thorpe, p. 344; Vernaleken, p. 85; Webster, pp. 80, 89; Wide-Awake Stories, 143 ff., 258 ff., 306 ff.; Wolf, Deut. M. u. S., Nos. 20, 21, and p. 82; Zingerle, ii, No. 1. Compare Perseus and Andromeda; Heracles and the daughter of Laomedon (Il., xx, 145; and see Mr. Lang's note, p. 517, of his Iliad); Bhima in the legend of "Bakabadha" (Mahabharata, see Monier Williams, Ind. Epic Poetry, and Dean Milman's "The Brahman's Lament"); the Persian romance of "Hatim Tai"; the Vedic myth of the battle between light and darkness; Indra and Vitra (in Mr. Baring Gould's opinion the legend of St. George and the Dragon is a solar myth).
Siegmund, Siegfried, and Beowulf were dragon-quellers; Frotho (in Saxo Gram.) overpowers a venomous dragon; Thor himself tackles the enormous midgardsworm. The worm given to the beautiful Thora Borgarhiortr reposed on gold which grew as the worm grew. It ate an ox at every meal. Ragnar Lodbrok slew this enormous dragon, winning the maid for his bride, and all the gold for her dowry. (Fornald, Sog., i, 237-8; see Grimm, T. M., 690.) But the numerous examples of treasure-guarding dragons need not here be cited.
(P. 457.) There is a variant of this story, under the same title, in Cosquin's Contes populaires de Lorraine (vol. i, pp. 133-37). King's son plunges his head and his clothes into gold-fountain in forbidden chamber, and then flies from his father on magic steed, which suggests the obstacles to pursuit. He exchanges clothes with a beggar, covers his golden head with a bladder, and becomes a scullion at the palace of another king, where he is called "le Petit Teigneux". The incidents which follow are much the same as those of the Arabian story. In Kolberg's Lud. Krakowskie, iv, 52-4 is a story of a young man with hair of gold, who, upon entering service, covers his head with a handkerchief, wherefore he is called Parszywka (le Teigneux). The story belongs to the Cinderella type.
In a modern Greek story from Epirus (Halin, No. 6) a Jew persuades the queen to poison the prince, who is put on his guard by the foal. The continuation of the story is similar to that given by Spitta-Bey. (The cow counsels the younger brother to flee, in the Egyptian story of the "Two Brothers".)
In the Russian tale of "Neznaiko" (Athanas'ev, vii, No. 10) the hero is persecuted by his stepmother, whose attempts to kill him are frustrated by the magic colt. When the colt is to be killed the hero escapes on it; following its counsel, he flays an ox and dons its hide, and covers his golden locks with a bladder. King makes him useful as a scarecrow. Summoning his magic steed by burning one of its hairs, he twice defeats the king's enemy. He is wounded on the second occasion, and his arm is bound up with the scarf belonging to the princess, whom eventually he marries.
Grimm's "The Iron Man", No. 136, and Dasent's "The Widow's Son", are similar variants; compare also Wolf, p. 276; Stier, No. 8; Naaki, p. 117; Webster, 111; Romero, Nos. 8 and 38; Gonzenbach, No. 61; Romancero general, No. 1264 (ed. Rivadeneyra, Madrid, 1856); Bastian, Die Volker des Oestlichen Asiens, iv (1868), p. 350; Radloff, ii, p. 607.
(P. 457.) In this story, as in No. 30, the stepmother demands the blood or heart of the hated child's pet-animal, as cure for her feigned illness; in No. 187 she craves broth made from the pigeon which she knows is her stepchild transformed. Similar instances in folk-tales are very numerous; see, e.g., Asiatic Researches, xx (1836), p. 345; Cavallius, p. 142; Celtic Mag., xiii, pp. 213 ff., "Gold Tree and Silver Tree"; Comparetti, No. 68; Cosquin, No. xxi, "La Biche Blanche"; F.-L. Journal, vi, 42 (Aino tale), "The Wicked Stepmother"; Frere, O. D. D., No. 1; Hahn, No. 49; Sagas from the Far East, p. 73; and the variants of the story (No. 337) cited in the preceding note [Note 74]. Grimm (ii, 539 ff.) cites a story from Bornu about two faithful friends, a rich man and a poor man. The rich man feigns illness, and, at his instigation, the aged man who is called in to see him says the poor man's son must be killed, for only the sight of his blood can save the rich man's life. The poor man fetches his child, and ungrudgingly gives him to his friend. But a sheep's blood is sprinkled on the floor, and the rich man pretends to be cured by the sight. The boy is kept in concealment. After a time he is restored to his father, and the rich man reveals that his illness was feigned for the sake of proving his friend.
In proof that a belief in the efficacy of human blood, etc., as a cure, is prevalent at the present day, I quote from an article, appearing in The Times of Sept. 10, 1892, entitled "Anti-foreign Literature in China; the Case of Chou Han" . "Missionaries especially were charged--and the charges have been made frequently during the past thirty years--with bewitching women and children by means of drugs, enticing them to some secret place, and there killing them for the purpose of taking out their hearts and eyes. Dr. MacGowan, a gentleman who has lived for many years in China, has published a statement, showing that, from the point of view of Chinese medicine, these accusations are far from preposterous. It is one of the medical superstitions of China that various portions of the human frame, and all its secretions, possess therapeutic properties. He refers to a popular voluminous Materia Medica--the only authoritative work of the kind in the Chinese language--which gives thirty-seven anthropophagous remedies of native medicine. Human blood taken into the system from another is believed to strengthen it . Human muscles are supposed to be a good medicament in consumption, and cases are constantly recorded of children who mutilate themselves to administer their flesh to sick parents. Never, says Dr. MacGowan, has filial piety exhibited its zeal in this manner more than at the present time .It is very common among the comparatively lowly, but more frequent among the literati. A literary graduate .cut off a joint of one of his fingers, which he made into broth mixed with medicine, and gave to his mother ."
It is hardly necessary to refer to the very widespread belief amongst savages, that the courage, strength, fleetness, ferocity, and so forth of a particular animal may be acquired by devouring a portion of its carcase; or that the virtues of the dead may be absorbed in a similar way. So we read, also, in the "Fragment of a short Brunhild Lay" (C. P. B., i, 306): "Some gave Gothorm boiled wolf's flesh, some sliced serpents . before they could persuade him to lay hands on the gentle hero." (See also Story of the Volsungs (Camelot Ser., p. 110.) The angel advised Tobias to preserve the liver, heart, and gall of a fish, and explained the uses of them (Tobit, vi, 6, 7, 8; xi, 11). Compare the magic properties of the liver and head of l'Oiseau Merveilleux (La Tradition, 1889, No. ii, pp. 33-40), the variants of which theme are too numerous to cite. In Persia, when any member of a household is very ill, it is the custom to kill a sheep, in order to avert danger from the sick person. Here the slaying of the animal is of propitiatory value, for it is hoped that Fate may be satisfied by the substitution of the sheep for the patient. (See S. J. A. Churchill's notes on "Sacrifices in Persia", in Ind. Ant., 1891, vol. xx, 148.)
(P. 459.) This story is the same as "Cinder Jack" in Magyar Folk-tales, by Jones and Kropf. The Magyar title is "Hamupipöke", and as there are no genders in the Magyar language, the name may stand either for a male or a female.
Cf. the Finnish story from Ilomantsi (Satuja ja Tarinoita, ii, p. 22), entitled "Maan, meren kulkija laiwa", which tells of a king wilth an only daughter. Anyone wishing to marry her must build a ship that can sail over land and sea. Three brothers, who are merchants, try to win her. The elder fail because they reject an old man's proffered help; the youngest, who is called Tuhkamo (Ashiepattle), secures the old man's goodwill, and is successful.
Compare also Dasent's "Princess on the Glass Hill". Stories of the princess on the glass mountain (as in Nos. 329, 332), or other inaccessible height (as in Nos. 319, 336, 341), recall the deliverance of Brunhild. The hall of flames of the Norse saga is the glass mountain which only a particular horse (Grani) can ascend, in the Danish ballad of Bryniel (Altdanische Lieder und Märchen, p. 31, and notes pp. 496, 497). For other examples of the glass mountain, cf. Bechstein, Sagen, p. 67; Campbell, iv, 295; F.-L. Rec., iii, 225; F.-L. Journal, iii, 188; vi, 199; Grimm, Nos. 25 and note, 53, 93, 127; Magyar Folk-Tales, p. 59; Müllenhoff, p. 386-7; Thorpe, p. 86, "Princess on the Glass Mountain"; Vernaleken, pp. 50, 275 and note, 280, 289, 355; Zingerle, p. 239. Compare the belief that the soul in its wanderings has to climb a steep hill-side, sometimes supposed to be made of iron, sometimes of glass, on the summit of which is the heavenly Paradise. For this reason the nails of a corpse must never be pared. The Russians still carry about with them parings of an owl's claws, and of their own nails (see Ralston's Songs of the Russian People, p. 109-10).
The Lithuanians bury or burn with the dead the claws of a lynx or bear, in the belief that the soul has to climb up a steep mountain (Wojcicki, Klechdy, ii, 134-5). In Vernaleken's "The Maiden on the Crystal Mountain" (from Lower Austria), the hero who keeps sliding backward when he attempts to climb the glass mountain, changes himself into a bear (by means of the hair given him by a grateful bear), and digs steps with his paws. When the splinters of glass lame him he changes himself into a wolf, and holds fast with his teeth. Finally he changes himself into a raven, and flies to the top. The steep hill is called Anafielas by the Lithuanians, and Szklanna gora (glass mountain) by the Poles.
A glass mountain occurs in the "Younger Titurel" (Str., 6177). King Arthur dwells with Morgan le fay on the glass island. A glass house in the air occurs as early as Tristan (ed. Michel, ii, 103; cf. i, 222). There is a glass forest in Gypsy-lore Journal, iii, 81.
In the folk-tales there is no distinct connection between the glass mountain and the abode of the dead, except that in Grimm's No. 25, "The Ravens", the little girl may be supposed to be seeking her lost brothers in the underworld. There is the Norse glerhiminn (coelum vitreum), a paradise to which old heroes ride. (See Grimm, T. M., p. 820, note.)
Cox, Marian Roalfe. Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin, and Cap O' Rushes, abstracted and tabulated. London: David Nutt for the Folklore Society, 1893.
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