Grimm's Household Tales with the
translated by Margaret Hunt
man had twelve children and was forced to work night and day to give them
even bread. When therefore the thirteenth came into the world, he knew
not what to do in his trouble, but ran out into the great highway, and
resolved to ask the first person whom he met to be godfather. The first
to meet him was the good God who already knew what filled his heart, and
said to him, "Poor man, I pity thee. I will hold thy child at its
christening, and will take charge of it and make it happy on earth."
The man said, "Who art thou?" "I am God." "Then
I do not desire to have thee for a godfather," said the man; "thou
givest to the rich, and leavest the poor to hunger." Thus spoke the
man, for he did not know how wisely God apportions riches and poverty.
He turned therefore away from the Lord, and went farther. Then the Devil
came to him and said, "What seekest thou? If thou wilt take me as
a godfather for thy child, I will give him gold in plenty and all the
joys of the world as well." The man asked, "Who art thou?"
"I am the Devil." "Then I do not desire to have thee for
godfather," said the man; "thou deceivest men and leadest them
astray." He went onwards, and then came Death striding up to him
with withered legs, and said, "Take me as godfather." The man
asked, "Who art thou?" "I am Death, and I make all equal."
Then said the man, "Thou art the right one, thou takest the rich
as well as the poor, without distinction; thou shalt be godfather."
Death answered, "I will make thy child rich and famous, for he who
has me for a friend can lack nothing." The man said, "Next Sunday
is the christening; be there at the right time." Death appeared as
he had promised, and stood godfather quite in the usual way.
When the boy had grown up, his godfather one day appeared and bade him go with him. He led him forth into a forest, and showed him a herb which grew there, and said, "Now shalt thou receive thy godfather's present. I make thee a celebrated physician. When thou art called to a patient, I will always appear to thee. If I stand by the head of the sick man, thou mayst say with confidence that thou wilt make him well again, and if thou givest him of this herb he will recover; but if I stand by the patient's feet, he is mine, and thou must say that all remedies are in vain, and that no physician in the world could save him. But beware of using the herb against my will, or it might fare ill with thee."
It was not long before the youth was the most famous physician in the whole world. "He had only to look at the patient and he knew his condition at once, and if he would recover, or must needs die." So they said of him, and from far and wide people came to him, sent for him when they had any one ill, and gave him so much money that he soon became a rich man. Now it so befell that the King became ill, and the physician was summoned, and was to say if recovery were possible. But when he came to the bed, Death was standing by the feet of the sick man, and the herb did not grow which could save him. "If I could but cheat Death for once," thought the physician, "he is sure to take it ill if I do, but, as I am his godson, he will shut one eye; I will risk it." He therefore took up the sick man, and laid him the other way, so that now Death was standing by his head. Then he gave the King some of the herb, and he recovered and grew healthy again. But Death came to the physician, looking very black and angry, threatened him with his finger, and said, "Thou hast overreached me; this time I will pardon it, as thou art my godson; but if thou venturest it again, it will cost thee thy neck, for I will take thee thyself away with me."
Soon afterwards the King's daughter fell into a severe illness. She was his only child, and he wept day and night, so that he began to lose the sight of his eyes, and he caused it to be made known that whosoever rescued her from death should be her husband and inherit the crown. When the physician came to the sick girl's bed, he saw Death by her feet. He ought to have remembered the warning given by his godfather, but he was so infatuated by the great beauty of the King's daughter, and the happiness of becoming her husband, that he flung all thought to the winds. He did not see that Death was casting angry glances on him, that he was raising his hand in the air, and threatening him with his withered fist. He raised up the sick girl, and placed her head where her feet had lain. Then he gave her some of the herb, and instantly her cheeks flushed red, and life stirred afresh in her.
When Death saw that for a second time he was defrauded
of his own property, he walked up to the physician with long strides,
and said, "All is over with thee, and now the lot falls on thee,"
and seized him so firmly with his ice-cold hand, that he could not resist,
and led him into a cave below the earth. There he saw how thousands and
thousands of candles were burning in countless rows, some large, others
half-sized, others small. Every instant some were extinguished, and others
again burnt up, so that the flames seemed to leap hither and thither in
perpetual change. "See," said Death, "these are the lights
of men's lives. The large ones belong to children, the half-sized ones
to married people in their prime, the little ones belong to old people;
but children and young folks likewise have often only a tiny candle."
"Show me the light of my life," said the physician, and he thought
that it would be still very tall. Death pointed to a little end which
was just threatening to go out, and said, "Behold, it is there."
"Ah, dear godfather," said the horrified physician, "light
a new one for me, do it for love of me, that I may enjoy my life, be King,
and the husband of the King's beautiful daughter." "I cannot,"
answered Death, "one must go out before a new one is lighted."
"Then place the old one on a new one, that will go on burning at
once when the old one has come to an end," pleaded the physician.
Death behaved as if he were going to fulfill his wish, and took hold of
a tall new candle; but as he desired to revenge himself, he purposely
made a mistake in fixing it, and the little piece fell down and was extinguished.
Immediately the physician fell on the ground, and now he himself was in
the hands of Death.
Grimm, Jacob and Wilhelm. Household Tales. Margaret Hunt, translator. London: George Bell, 1884, 1892. 2 volumes.
From Hesse; but here oral tradition completes the story by the fact of Death showing the physician the cavern with the life-candles, and warning him. The stratagem by means of which Death punishes his Godson is taken from the rendering of the story in Schilling's Neue Abendgenossen, 3. 145, 286, who has also derived it from modern folklore. The age of the story is proved by one of Hans Sachs's Meister Songs in the year 1553, which is to be found in a MS. collection of Meister songs in Berlin (German MSS. No. 22 and following parts. The conclusion is different. Compare a Meister song by Henry Wolf in the year 1644, in another collection (German MSS. No.24 fol. p. 496), in which first the Devil and then Death is rejected by the peasant. Jacob Ayrer, too, has made a Shrove-Tuesday Play of it (the 6th in the theatrical works), called The Peasant and his Godfather, Death. First Jesus offers himself as Godfather, but is not accepted by the peasant because he makes one man rich and another poor. Thereupon the Devil comes up whom the peasant likewise rejects (as St. Christopher did when he was in search of a master), because he runs away at the name of the Lord and the holy cross. At length the Devil sends Death to him who treats every one alike, and he stands Godfather to the child, and promises to make him a physician, so that superabundant wealth will come to him:
Two apple-pippins concealed in bread are all that he is to give by way of medicine. The peasant has great success with them, but at last Death fetches him himself. This fable, though with peculiar variations (of which the best consists in the fact that it is not the father but the newly-born child itself which receives the gift of healing), is told by Prätorins in the Glückstopf (1669, pp. 147-149). See Pröhle's Kindermärchen, No. 13. According to a story from the Odenwald, in Wolt's Hausmärchen, p. 365, the physician outwits Death.
The candles with which life is bound up recall Nornagest and the still current expressions, "to extinguish the flame of life," or the taper of life. Already in a Greek myth was life connected with a burning faggot. See Grüber's Mythological Dictionary, 3. 153. The story specially points to deep-seated ideas; compare Wackernagel in Haupt's Zeitschrift, 6. 280, and following pages. Death and the Devil are evil deities, and both are one, in the same way that hell, the nether world and the kingdom of the dead, run into each other in the story of the Smith .
But the Evil One, like the good God, is called Father, and "Tatta." The Godfather is not only called Father, but also "Pathe," "Goth," and "Dod," or "Tod." The baptized child is likewise called "Pathe" and "Gothel," hence the confusion between the two in the story: compare Altdeutsche Wälder, 1. 104, notes. Grammatically, indeed, the words tôt (mors) and tote (susceptor baptizati) are carefully distinguished.
1: By every sick man I'll be
2: Gambling Hansel, No. 82.-TR.